Variation in styles of rifting in the Gulf of California

Daniel Lizarralde, Gary J. Axen, Hillary E. Brown, John M. Fletcher, Antonio González-Fernández, Alistair J. Harding, W. Steven Holbrook, Graham M. Kent, Pedro Paramo, Fiona Sutherland, Paul J Umhoefer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

162 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Constraints on the structure of rifted continental margins and the magmatism resulting from such rifting can help refine our understanding of the strength of the lithosphere, the state of the underlying mantle and the transition from rifting to seafloor spreading. An important structural classification of rifts is by width, with narrow rifts thought to form as necking instabilities (where extension rates outpace thermal diffusion) and wide rifts thought to require a mechanism to inhibit localization, such as lower-crustal flow in high heat-flow settings. Observations of the magmatism that results from rifting range from volcanic margins with two to three times the magmatism predicted from melting models to non-volcanic margins with almost no rift or post-rift magmatism. Such variations in magmatic activity are commonly attributed to variations in mantle temperature. Here we describe results from the PESCADOR seismic experiment in the southern Gulf of California and present crustal-scale images across three rift segments. Over short lateral distances, we observe large differences in rifting style and magmatism - from wide rifting with minor synchronous magmatism to narrow rifting in magmatically robust segments. But many of the factors believed to control structural evolution and magmatism during rifting (extension rate, mantle potential temperature and heat flow) tend to vary over larger length scales. We conclude instead that mantle depletion, rather than low mantle temperature, accounts for the observed wide, magma-poor margins, and that mantle fertility and possibly sedimentary insulation, rather than high mantle temperature, account for the observed robust rift and post-rift magmatism.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)466-469
Number of pages4
JournalNature
Volume448
Issue number7152
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 26 2007

Fingerprint

Temperature
Thermal Diffusion
Hot Temperature
Freezing
Fertility

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

Lizarralde, D., Axen, G. J., Brown, H. E., Fletcher, J. M., González-Fernández, A., Harding, A. J., ... Umhoefer, P. J. (2007). Variation in styles of rifting in the Gulf of California. Nature, 448(7152), 466-469. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature06035

Variation in styles of rifting in the Gulf of California. / Lizarralde, Daniel; Axen, Gary J.; Brown, Hillary E.; Fletcher, John M.; González-Fernández, Antonio; Harding, Alistair J.; Holbrook, W. Steven; Kent, Graham M.; Paramo, Pedro; Sutherland, Fiona; Umhoefer, Paul J.

In: Nature, Vol. 448, No. 7152, 26.07.2007, p. 466-469.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Lizarralde, D, Axen, GJ, Brown, HE, Fletcher, JM, González-Fernández, A, Harding, AJ, Holbrook, WS, Kent, GM, Paramo, P, Sutherland, F & Umhoefer, PJ 2007, 'Variation in styles of rifting in the Gulf of California', Nature, vol. 448, no. 7152, pp. 466-469. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature06035
Lizarralde D, Axen GJ, Brown HE, Fletcher JM, González-Fernández A, Harding AJ et al. Variation in styles of rifting in the Gulf of California. Nature. 2007 Jul 26;448(7152):466-469. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature06035
Lizarralde, Daniel ; Axen, Gary J. ; Brown, Hillary E. ; Fletcher, John M. ; González-Fernández, Antonio ; Harding, Alistair J. ; Holbrook, W. Steven ; Kent, Graham M. ; Paramo, Pedro ; Sutherland, Fiona ; Umhoefer, Paul J. / Variation in styles of rifting in the Gulf of California. In: Nature. 2007 ; Vol. 448, No. 7152. pp. 466-469.
@article{18d0dafa39874affb445e2788042b703,
title = "Variation in styles of rifting in the Gulf of California",
abstract = "Constraints on the structure of rifted continental margins and the magmatism resulting from such rifting can help refine our understanding of the strength of the lithosphere, the state of the underlying mantle and the transition from rifting to seafloor spreading. An important structural classification of rifts is by width, with narrow rifts thought to form as necking instabilities (where extension rates outpace thermal diffusion) and wide rifts thought to require a mechanism to inhibit localization, such as lower-crustal flow in high heat-flow settings. Observations of the magmatism that results from rifting range from volcanic margins with two to three times the magmatism predicted from melting models to non-volcanic margins with almost no rift or post-rift magmatism. Such variations in magmatic activity are commonly attributed to variations in mantle temperature. Here we describe results from the PESCADOR seismic experiment in the southern Gulf of California and present crustal-scale images across three rift segments. Over short lateral distances, we observe large differences in rifting style and magmatism - from wide rifting with minor synchronous magmatism to narrow rifting in magmatically robust segments. But many of the factors believed to control structural evolution and magmatism during rifting (extension rate, mantle potential temperature and heat flow) tend to vary over larger length scales. We conclude instead that mantle depletion, rather than low mantle temperature, accounts for the observed wide, magma-poor margins, and that mantle fertility and possibly sedimentary insulation, rather than high mantle temperature, account for the observed robust rift and post-rift magmatism.",
author = "Daniel Lizarralde and Axen, {Gary J.} and Brown, {Hillary E.} and Fletcher, {John M.} and Antonio Gonz{\'a}lez-Fern{\'a}ndez and Harding, {Alistair J.} and Holbrook, {W. Steven} and Kent, {Graham M.} and Pedro Paramo and Fiona Sutherland and Umhoefer, {Paul J}",
year = "2007",
month = "7",
day = "26",
doi = "10.1038/nature06035",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "448",
pages = "466--469",
journal = "Nature Cell Biology",
issn = "1465-7392",
publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",
number = "7152",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Variation in styles of rifting in the Gulf of California

AU - Lizarralde, Daniel

AU - Axen, Gary J.

AU - Brown, Hillary E.

AU - Fletcher, John M.

AU - González-Fernández, Antonio

AU - Harding, Alistair J.

AU - Holbrook, W. Steven

AU - Kent, Graham M.

AU - Paramo, Pedro

AU - Sutherland, Fiona

AU - Umhoefer, Paul J

PY - 2007/7/26

Y1 - 2007/7/26

N2 - Constraints on the structure of rifted continental margins and the magmatism resulting from such rifting can help refine our understanding of the strength of the lithosphere, the state of the underlying mantle and the transition from rifting to seafloor spreading. An important structural classification of rifts is by width, with narrow rifts thought to form as necking instabilities (where extension rates outpace thermal diffusion) and wide rifts thought to require a mechanism to inhibit localization, such as lower-crustal flow in high heat-flow settings. Observations of the magmatism that results from rifting range from volcanic margins with two to three times the magmatism predicted from melting models to non-volcanic margins with almost no rift or post-rift magmatism. Such variations in magmatic activity are commonly attributed to variations in mantle temperature. Here we describe results from the PESCADOR seismic experiment in the southern Gulf of California and present crustal-scale images across three rift segments. Over short lateral distances, we observe large differences in rifting style and magmatism - from wide rifting with minor synchronous magmatism to narrow rifting in magmatically robust segments. But many of the factors believed to control structural evolution and magmatism during rifting (extension rate, mantle potential temperature and heat flow) tend to vary over larger length scales. We conclude instead that mantle depletion, rather than low mantle temperature, accounts for the observed wide, magma-poor margins, and that mantle fertility and possibly sedimentary insulation, rather than high mantle temperature, account for the observed robust rift and post-rift magmatism.

AB - Constraints on the structure of rifted continental margins and the magmatism resulting from such rifting can help refine our understanding of the strength of the lithosphere, the state of the underlying mantle and the transition from rifting to seafloor spreading. An important structural classification of rifts is by width, with narrow rifts thought to form as necking instabilities (where extension rates outpace thermal diffusion) and wide rifts thought to require a mechanism to inhibit localization, such as lower-crustal flow in high heat-flow settings. Observations of the magmatism that results from rifting range from volcanic margins with two to three times the magmatism predicted from melting models to non-volcanic margins with almost no rift or post-rift magmatism. Such variations in magmatic activity are commonly attributed to variations in mantle temperature. Here we describe results from the PESCADOR seismic experiment in the southern Gulf of California and present crustal-scale images across three rift segments. Over short lateral distances, we observe large differences in rifting style and magmatism - from wide rifting with minor synchronous magmatism to narrow rifting in magmatically robust segments. But many of the factors believed to control structural evolution and magmatism during rifting (extension rate, mantle potential temperature and heat flow) tend to vary over larger length scales. We conclude instead that mantle depletion, rather than low mantle temperature, accounts for the observed wide, magma-poor margins, and that mantle fertility and possibly sedimentary insulation, rather than high mantle temperature, account for the observed robust rift and post-rift magmatism.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=34547162818&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=34547162818&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1038/nature06035

DO - 10.1038/nature06035

M3 - Article

C2 - 17653189

AN - SCOPUS:34547162818

VL - 448

SP - 466

EP - 469

JO - Nature Cell Biology

JF - Nature Cell Biology

SN - 1465-7392

IS - 7152

ER -