The Spitzer c2d survey of weak-line T Tauri stars. III. The transition from primordial disks to debris disks

Zahed Wahhaj, Lucas Cieza, David W Koerner, Karl R. Stapelfeldt, Deborah L. Padgett, April Case, James R. Keller, Bruno Merín, Neal J. Evans, Paul Harvey, Anneila Sargent, Ewine F. Van Dishoeck, Lori Allen, Geoff Blake, Tim Brooke, Nicholas Chapman, Lee Mundy, Philip C. Myers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

We present 3.6 to 70 μm Spitzer photometry of 154 weak-line T Tauri stars (WTTSs) in the Chamaeleon, Lupus, Ophiuchus, and Taurus star formation regions, all of which are within 200 pc of the Sun. For a comparative study, we also include 33 classical T Tauri stars which are located in the same star-forming regions. Spitzer sensitivities allow us to robustly detect the photosphere in the IRAC bands (3.6 to 8 μm) and the 24 μm MIPS band. In the 70 μm MIPS band, we are able to detect dust emission brighter than roughly 40 times the photosphere. These observations represent the most sensitive WTTSs survey in the mid-to far-infrared to date and reveal the frequency of outer disks (r = 3-50 AU) around WTTSs. The 70 μm photometry for half the c2d WTTSs sample (the on-cloud objects), which were not included in the earlier papers in this series, those of Padgett et al. and Cieza et al., are presented here for the first time. We find a disk frequency of 19% for on-cloud WTTSs, but just 5% for off-cloud WTTSs, similar to the value reported in the earlier works. WTTSs exhibit spectral energy distributions that are quite diverse, spanning the range from optically thick to optically thin disks. Most disks become more tenuous than Ldisk/L* = 2 × 10 -3 in 2 Myr and more tenuous than Ldisk/L * = 5 × 10-4 in 4 Myr.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)835-854
Number of pages20
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume724
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2010

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T Tauri stars
debris
comparative study
photosphere
dust
photometry
energy
spectral energy distribution
star formation
stars
sensitivity

Keywords

  • Infrared: stars
  • Planetary systems
  • Protoplanetary disks
  • Stars: pre-main sequence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics

Cite this

The Spitzer c2d survey of weak-line T Tauri stars. III. The transition from primordial disks to debris disks. / Wahhaj, Zahed; Cieza, Lucas; Koerner, David W; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Padgett, Deborah L.; Case, April; Keller, James R.; Merín, Bruno; Evans, Neal J.; Harvey, Paul; Sargent, Anneila; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Allen, Lori; Blake, Geoff; Brooke, Tim; Chapman, Nicholas; Mundy, Lee; Myers, Philip C.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 724, No. 2, 01.12.2010, p. 835-854.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Wahhaj, Z, Cieza, L, Koerner, DW, Stapelfeldt, KR, Padgett, DL, Case, A, Keller, JR, Merín, B, Evans, NJ, Harvey, P, Sargent, A, Van Dishoeck, EF, Allen, L, Blake, G, Brooke, T, Chapman, N, Mundy, L & Myers, PC 2010, 'The Spitzer c2d survey of weak-line T Tauri stars. III. The transition from primordial disks to debris disks', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 724, no. 2, pp. 835-854. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/724/2/835
Wahhaj, Zahed ; Cieza, Lucas ; Koerner, David W ; Stapelfeldt, Karl R. ; Padgett, Deborah L. ; Case, April ; Keller, James R. ; Merín, Bruno ; Evans, Neal J. ; Harvey, Paul ; Sargent, Anneila ; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F. ; Allen, Lori ; Blake, Geoff ; Brooke, Tim ; Chapman, Nicholas ; Mundy, Lee ; Myers, Philip C. / The Spitzer c2d survey of weak-line T Tauri stars. III. The transition from primordial disks to debris disks. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2010 ; Vol. 724, No. 2. pp. 835-854.
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AU - Keller, James R.

AU - Merín, Bruno

AU - Evans, Neal J.

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AU - Van Dishoeck, Ewine F.

AU - Allen, Lori

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N2 - We present 3.6 to 70 μm Spitzer photometry of 154 weak-line T Tauri stars (WTTSs) in the Chamaeleon, Lupus, Ophiuchus, and Taurus star formation regions, all of which are within 200 pc of the Sun. For a comparative study, we also include 33 classical T Tauri stars which are located in the same star-forming regions. Spitzer sensitivities allow us to robustly detect the photosphere in the IRAC bands (3.6 to 8 μm) and the 24 μm MIPS band. In the 70 μm MIPS band, we are able to detect dust emission brighter than roughly 40 times the photosphere. These observations represent the most sensitive WTTSs survey in the mid-to far-infrared to date and reveal the frequency of outer disks (r = 3-50 AU) around WTTSs. The 70 μm photometry for half the c2d WTTSs sample (the on-cloud objects), which were not included in the earlier papers in this series, those of Padgett et al. and Cieza et al., are presented here for the first time. We find a disk frequency of 19% for on-cloud WTTSs, but just 5% for off-cloud WTTSs, similar to the value reported in the earlier works. WTTSs exhibit spectral energy distributions that are quite diverse, spanning the range from optically thick to optically thin disks. Most disks become more tenuous than Ldisk/L* = 2 × 10 -3 in 2 Myr and more tenuous than Ldisk/L * = 5 × 10-4 in 4 Myr.

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