The effects of instrumental and expressive factors on overall satisfaction in a park environment

Claudia Jurowski, Melinda W. Cumbow, Muzaffer Uysal, Francis P. Noe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

18 Scopus citations


The problem of how to measure site satisfaction for a natural area was approached by applying a theoretical model that has been used in marketing. The concepts of instrumental and expressive attributes were used to portray an individual's evaluation of an environmental situation. Expressive indicators of satisfaction involve core experiences representing the major intent of an act, in this case seeking an outdoor recreational experience in a natural-historic setting, while instrumental factors serve to act as facilitators or means to that desired end. Both expressive and instrumental factors must be taken into account in explaining overall satisfaction. A LISREL model was used to test the direction and relative influence of the measured and latent variables. The model that evolved reflected a more complex explanation of the factors that underlie satisfaction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)47-68
Number of pages22
JournalJournal of Environmental Systems
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 1995
Externally publishedYes


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)

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