The c2d Spitzer spectroscopic survey of ices around low-mass young stellar objects. I. H2O and the 5-8 μm bands

A. C A Boogert, K. M. Pontoppidan, C. Knez, F. Lahuis, J. Kessler-Silacci, E. F. Van Dishoeck, G. A. Blake, J. C. Augereau, S. E. Bisschop, S. Bottinelli, T. Y. Brooke, J. Brown, A. Crapsi, N. J. Evans, H. J. Fraser, V. Geers, T. L. Huard, J. K. Jørgensen, K. I. Öberg, L. E. Allen & 6 others P. M. Harvey, David W Koerner, L. G. Mundy, D. L. Padgett, A. I. Sargent, K. R. Stapelfeldt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

217 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

To study the physical and chemical evolution of ices in solar-mass systems, a spectral survey is conducted of a sample of 41 low-luminosity YSOs(L, ∼ 0.1-10 L) using 3-38 μm. Spitzer and ground-based spectra. The sample is complemented with previously published Spitzer spectra of background stars and with ISO spectra of well-studied massive YSOs (L ∼ 105 L). The long-known 6.0 and 6.85 μm bands are detected toward all sources, with the Class 0-type YSOs showing the deepest bands ever observed. The 6.0 μm band is often deeper than expected from the bending mode of pure solid H2O. The additional 5-7 μm absorption consists of five independent components, which, by comparison to laboratory studies, must be from at least eight different carriers. Much of this absorption is due to simple species likely formed by grain surface chemistry, at abundances of 1%-30% for CH3OH, 3%-8% for NH3, 1%-5% for HCOOH, ∼6% for H2CO, and ∼0.3% for HCOO- relative to solid H2O. The 6.85 μm band has one or two carriers, of which one may be less volatile than H2O. Its carrier(s) formed early in the molecular cloud evolution and do not survive in the diffuse ISM. If an NH 4+-containing salt is the carrier, its abundance relative to solid H2O is ∼7%, demonstrating the efficiency of low-temperature acid-base chemistry or cosmic-ray-induced reactions. Possible origins are discussed for enigmatic, very broad absorption between 5 and 8 μm. Finally, the same ices are observed toward massive and low-mass YSOs, indicating that processing by internal UV radiation fields is a minor factor in their early chemical evolution.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)985-1004
Number of pages20
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume678
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - May 10 2008

Fingerprint

ice
chemical evolution
chemistry
cosmic ray
relative abundance
molecular clouds
radiation distribution
salt
cosmic rays
acid
luminosity
salts
stars
acids
young
chemical
radiation
comparison
laboratory

Keywords

  • Astrochemistry
  • Infrared: ISM
  • Infrared: Stars
  • ISM: Abundances
  • ISM: Molecules
  • Stars: Formation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Boogert, A. C. A., Pontoppidan, K. M., Knez, C., Lahuis, F., Kessler-Silacci, J., Van Dishoeck, E. F., ... Stapelfeldt, K. R. (2008). The c2d Spitzer spectroscopic survey of ices around low-mass young stellar objects. I. H2O and the 5-8 μm bands. Astrophysical Journal, 678(2), 985-1004. https://doi.org/10.1086/533425

The c2d Spitzer spectroscopic survey of ices around low-mass young stellar objects. I. H2O and the 5-8 μm bands. / Boogert, A. C A; Pontoppidan, K. M.; Knez, C.; Lahuis, F.; Kessler-Silacci, J.; Van Dishoeck, E. F.; Blake, G. A.; Augereau, J. C.; Bisschop, S. E.; Bottinelli, S.; Brooke, T. Y.; Brown, J.; Crapsi, A.; Evans, N. J.; Fraser, H. J.; Geers, V.; Huard, T. L.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Öberg, K. I.; Allen, L. E.; Harvey, P. M.; Koerner, David W; Mundy, L. G.; Padgett, D. L.; Sargent, A. I.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 678, No. 2, 10.05.2008, p. 985-1004.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Boogert, ACA, Pontoppidan, KM, Knez, C, Lahuis, F, Kessler-Silacci, J, Van Dishoeck, EF, Blake, GA, Augereau, JC, Bisschop, SE, Bottinelli, S, Brooke, TY, Brown, J, Crapsi, A, Evans, NJ, Fraser, HJ, Geers, V, Huard, TL, Jørgensen, JK, Öberg, KI, Allen, LE, Harvey, PM, Koerner, DW, Mundy, LG, Padgett, DL, Sargent, AI & Stapelfeldt, KR 2008, 'The c2d Spitzer spectroscopic survey of ices around low-mass young stellar objects. I. H2O and the 5-8 μm bands', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 678, no. 2, pp. 985-1004. https://doi.org/10.1086/533425
Boogert ACA, Pontoppidan KM, Knez C, Lahuis F, Kessler-Silacci J, Van Dishoeck EF et al. The c2d Spitzer spectroscopic survey of ices around low-mass young stellar objects. I. H2O and the 5-8 μm bands. Astrophysical Journal. 2008 May 10;678(2):985-1004. https://doi.org/10.1086/533425
Boogert, A. C A ; Pontoppidan, K. M. ; Knez, C. ; Lahuis, F. ; Kessler-Silacci, J. ; Van Dishoeck, E. F. ; Blake, G. A. ; Augereau, J. C. ; Bisschop, S. E. ; Bottinelli, S. ; Brooke, T. Y. ; Brown, J. ; Crapsi, A. ; Evans, N. J. ; Fraser, H. J. ; Geers, V. ; Huard, T. L. ; Jørgensen, J. K. ; Öberg, K. I. ; Allen, L. E. ; Harvey, P. M. ; Koerner, David W ; Mundy, L. G. ; Padgett, D. L. ; Sargent, A. I. ; Stapelfeldt, K. R. / The c2d Spitzer spectroscopic survey of ices around low-mass young stellar objects. I. H2O and the 5-8 μm bands. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2008 ; Vol. 678, No. 2. pp. 985-1004.
@article{09657488580d4a5ea75162ba38a05560,
title = "The c2d Spitzer spectroscopic survey of ices around low-mass young stellar objects. I. H2O and the 5-8 μm bands",
abstract = "To study the physical and chemical evolution of ices in solar-mass systems, a spectral survey is conducted of a sample of 41 low-luminosity YSOs(L, ∼ 0.1-10 L⊙) using 3-38 μm. Spitzer and ground-based spectra. The sample is complemented with previously published Spitzer spectra of background stars and with ISO spectra of well-studied massive YSOs (L ∼ 105 L⊙). The long-known 6.0 and 6.85 μm bands are detected toward all sources, with the Class 0-type YSOs showing the deepest bands ever observed. The 6.0 μm band is often deeper than expected from the bending mode of pure solid H2O. The additional 5-7 μm absorption consists of five independent components, which, by comparison to laboratory studies, must be from at least eight different carriers. Much of this absorption is due to simple species likely formed by grain surface chemistry, at abundances of 1{\%}-30{\%} for CH3OH, 3{\%}-8{\%} for NH3, 1{\%}-5{\%} for HCOOH, ∼6{\%} for H2CO, and ∼0.3{\%} for HCOO- relative to solid H2O. The 6.85 μm band has one or two carriers, of which one may be less volatile than H2O. Its carrier(s) formed early in the molecular cloud evolution and do not survive in the diffuse ISM. If an NH 4+-containing salt is the carrier, its abundance relative to solid H2O is ∼7{\%}, demonstrating the efficiency of low-temperature acid-base chemistry or cosmic-ray-induced reactions. Possible origins are discussed for enigmatic, very broad absorption between 5 and 8 μm. Finally, the same ices are observed toward massive and low-mass YSOs, indicating that processing by internal UV radiation fields is a minor factor in their early chemical evolution.",
keywords = "Astrochemistry, Infrared: ISM, Infrared: Stars, ISM: Abundances, ISM: Molecules, Stars: Formation",
author = "Boogert, {A. C A} and Pontoppidan, {K. M.} and C. Knez and F. Lahuis and J. Kessler-Silacci and {Van Dishoeck}, {E. F.} and Blake, {G. A.} and Augereau, {J. C.} and Bisschop, {S. E.} and S. Bottinelli and Brooke, {T. Y.} and J. Brown and A. Crapsi and Evans, {N. J.} and Fraser, {H. J.} and V. Geers and Huard, {T. L.} and J{\o}rgensen, {J. K.} and {\"O}berg, {K. I.} and Allen, {L. E.} and Harvey, {P. M.} and Koerner, {David W} and Mundy, {L. G.} and Padgett, {D. L.} and Sargent, {A. I.} and Stapelfeldt, {K. R.}",
year = "2008",
month = "5",
day = "10",
doi = "10.1086/533425",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "678",
pages = "985--1004",
journal = "Astrophysical Journal",
issn = "0004-637X",
publisher = "IOP Publishing Ltd.",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The c2d Spitzer spectroscopic survey of ices around low-mass young stellar objects. I. H2O and the 5-8 μm bands

AU - Boogert, A. C A

AU - Pontoppidan, K. M.

AU - Knez, C.

AU - Lahuis, F.

AU - Kessler-Silacci, J.

AU - Van Dishoeck, E. F.

AU - Blake, G. A.

AU - Augereau, J. C.

AU - Bisschop, S. E.

AU - Bottinelli, S.

AU - Brooke, T. Y.

AU - Brown, J.

AU - Crapsi, A.

AU - Evans, N. J.

AU - Fraser, H. J.

AU - Geers, V.

AU - Huard, T. L.

AU - Jørgensen, J. K.

AU - Öberg, K. I.

AU - Allen, L. E.

AU - Harvey, P. M.

AU - Koerner, David W

AU - Mundy, L. G.

AU - Padgett, D. L.

AU - Sargent, A. I.

AU - Stapelfeldt, K. R.

PY - 2008/5/10

Y1 - 2008/5/10

N2 - To study the physical and chemical evolution of ices in solar-mass systems, a spectral survey is conducted of a sample of 41 low-luminosity YSOs(L, ∼ 0.1-10 L⊙) using 3-38 μm. Spitzer and ground-based spectra. The sample is complemented with previously published Spitzer spectra of background stars and with ISO spectra of well-studied massive YSOs (L ∼ 105 L⊙). The long-known 6.0 and 6.85 μm bands are detected toward all sources, with the Class 0-type YSOs showing the deepest bands ever observed. The 6.0 μm band is often deeper than expected from the bending mode of pure solid H2O. The additional 5-7 μm absorption consists of five independent components, which, by comparison to laboratory studies, must be from at least eight different carriers. Much of this absorption is due to simple species likely formed by grain surface chemistry, at abundances of 1%-30% for CH3OH, 3%-8% for NH3, 1%-5% for HCOOH, ∼6% for H2CO, and ∼0.3% for HCOO- relative to solid H2O. The 6.85 μm band has one or two carriers, of which one may be less volatile than H2O. Its carrier(s) formed early in the molecular cloud evolution and do not survive in the diffuse ISM. If an NH 4+-containing salt is the carrier, its abundance relative to solid H2O is ∼7%, demonstrating the efficiency of low-temperature acid-base chemistry or cosmic-ray-induced reactions. Possible origins are discussed for enigmatic, very broad absorption between 5 and 8 μm. Finally, the same ices are observed toward massive and low-mass YSOs, indicating that processing by internal UV radiation fields is a minor factor in their early chemical evolution.

AB - To study the physical and chemical evolution of ices in solar-mass systems, a spectral survey is conducted of a sample of 41 low-luminosity YSOs(L, ∼ 0.1-10 L⊙) using 3-38 μm. Spitzer and ground-based spectra. The sample is complemented with previously published Spitzer spectra of background stars and with ISO spectra of well-studied massive YSOs (L ∼ 105 L⊙). The long-known 6.0 and 6.85 μm bands are detected toward all sources, with the Class 0-type YSOs showing the deepest bands ever observed. The 6.0 μm band is often deeper than expected from the bending mode of pure solid H2O. The additional 5-7 μm absorption consists of five independent components, which, by comparison to laboratory studies, must be from at least eight different carriers. Much of this absorption is due to simple species likely formed by grain surface chemistry, at abundances of 1%-30% for CH3OH, 3%-8% for NH3, 1%-5% for HCOOH, ∼6% for H2CO, and ∼0.3% for HCOO- relative to solid H2O. The 6.85 μm band has one or two carriers, of which one may be less volatile than H2O. Its carrier(s) formed early in the molecular cloud evolution and do not survive in the diffuse ISM. If an NH 4+-containing salt is the carrier, its abundance relative to solid H2O is ∼7%, demonstrating the efficiency of low-temperature acid-base chemistry or cosmic-ray-induced reactions. Possible origins are discussed for enigmatic, very broad absorption between 5 and 8 μm. Finally, the same ices are observed toward massive and low-mass YSOs, indicating that processing by internal UV radiation fields is a minor factor in their early chemical evolution.

KW - Astrochemistry

KW - Infrared: ISM

KW - Infrared: Stars

KW - ISM: Abundances

KW - ISM: Molecules

KW - Stars: Formation

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=43949130406&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=43949130406&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1086/533425

DO - 10.1086/533425

M3 - Article

VL - 678

SP - 985

EP - 1004

JO - Astrophysical Journal

JF - Astrophysical Journal

SN - 0004-637X

IS - 2

ER -