This article presents calibration techniques for heated silicon atomic force microscope cantilevers and analyzes the accuracy of these techniques. A calibration methodology using Raman thermometry is presented and validated with heat transfer simulations and experimental measurements. Raman thermometry generates a calibration standard against which other techniques can be compared. Theoretical predictions of the cantilever temperature-dependent electrical properties do not by themselves provide accurate cantilever temperature calibration. Isothermal calibration is also insufficient. The temperature calibrations are stable with storage time and number of heating cycles, although an electrical 'burn-in' period is required to stabilize the cantilever response. These techniques for precise temperature calibration of heatable silicon cantilevers are required for applications where temperature must be carefully controlled, including surface science measurements and nano-manufacturing.
- Atomic force microscopy
- Thermal sensors
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering
- Mechanical Engineering