Social relationship correlates of major depressive disorder and depressive symptoms in Switzerland: Nationally representative cross sectional study

Steven D Barger, Nadine Messerli-Bürgy, Jürgen Barth

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

26 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: The quality and quantity of social relationships are associated with depression but there is less evidence regarding which aspects of social relationships are most predictive. We evaluated the relative magnitude and independence of the association of four social relationship domains with major depressive disorder and depressive symptoms. Methods. We analyzed a cross-sectional telephone interview and postal survey of a probability sample of adults living in Switzerland (N = 12,286). Twelve-month major depressive disorder was assessed via structured interview over the telephone using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). The postal survey assessed depressive symptoms as well as variables representing emotional support, tangible support, social integration, and loneliness. Results: Each individual social relationship domain was associated with both outcome measures, but in multivariate models being lonely and perceiving unmet emotional support had the largest and most consistent associations across depression outcomes (incidence rate ratios ranging from 1.55-9.97 for loneliness and from 1.23-1.40 for unmet support, p's < 0.05). All social relationship domains except marital status were independently associated with depressive symptoms whereas only loneliness and unmet support were associated with depressive disorder. Conclusions: Perceived quality and frequency of social relationships are associated with clinical depression and depressive symptoms across a wide adult age spectrum. This study extends prior work linking loneliness to depression by showing that a broad range of social relationship domains are associated with psychological well-being.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number273
JournalBMC Public Health
Volume14
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 24 2014

Fingerprint

Major Depressive Disorder
Switzerland
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depression
Loneliness
Interviews
Sampling Studies
Marital Status
Depressive Disorder
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Psychology
Incidence

Keywords

  • Depression
  • Social
  • Social isolation
  • Social networks
  • Support
  • Swiss Health Survey

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Social relationship correlates of major depressive disorder and depressive symptoms in Switzerland : Nationally representative cross sectional study. / Barger, Steven D; Messerli-Bürgy, Nadine; Barth, Jürgen.

In: BMC Public Health, Vol. 14, No. 1, 273, 24.03.2014.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{409d270ad1b644d888b0e51b970a7230,
title = "Social relationship correlates of major depressive disorder and depressive symptoms in Switzerland: Nationally representative cross sectional study",
abstract = "Background: The quality and quantity of social relationships are associated with depression but there is less evidence regarding which aspects of social relationships are most predictive. We evaluated the relative magnitude and independence of the association of four social relationship domains with major depressive disorder and depressive symptoms. Methods. We analyzed a cross-sectional telephone interview and postal survey of a probability sample of adults living in Switzerland (N = 12,286). Twelve-month major depressive disorder was assessed via structured interview over the telephone using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). The postal survey assessed depressive symptoms as well as variables representing emotional support, tangible support, social integration, and loneliness. Results: Each individual social relationship domain was associated with both outcome measures, but in multivariate models being lonely and perceiving unmet emotional support had the largest and most consistent associations across depression outcomes (incidence rate ratios ranging from 1.55-9.97 for loneliness and from 1.23-1.40 for unmet support, p's < 0.05). All social relationship domains except marital status were independently associated with depressive symptoms whereas only loneliness and unmet support were associated with depressive disorder. Conclusions: Perceived quality and frequency of social relationships are associated with clinical depression and depressive symptoms across a wide adult age spectrum. This study extends prior work linking loneliness to depression by showing that a broad range of social relationship domains are associated with psychological well-being.",
keywords = "Depression, Social, Social isolation, Social networks, Support, Swiss Health Survey",
author = "Barger, {Steven D} and Nadine Messerli-B{\"u}rgy and J{\"u}rgen Barth",
year = "2014",
month = "3",
day = "24",
doi = "10.1186/1471-2458-14-273",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "14",
journal = "BMC Public Health",
issn = "1471-2458",
publisher = "BioMed Central",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Social relationship correlates of major depressive disorder and depressive symptoms in Switzerland

T2 - Nationally representative cross sectional study

AU - Barger, Steven D

AU - Messerli-Bürgy, Nadine

AU - Barth, Jürgen

PY - 2014/3/24

Y1 - 2014/3/24

N2 - Background: The quality and quantity of social relationships are associated with depression but there is less evidence regarding which aspects of social relationships are most predictive. We evaluated the relative magnitude and independence of the association of four social relationship domains with major depressive disorder and depressive symptoms. Methods. We analyzed a cross-sectional telephone interview and postal survey of a probability sample of adults living in Switzerland (N = 12,286). Twelve-month major depressive disorder was assessed via structured interview over the telephone using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). The postal survey assessed depressive symptoms as well as variables representing emotional support, tangible support, social integration, and loneliness. Results: Each individual social relationship domain was associated with both outcome measures, but in multivariate models being lonely and perceiving unmet emotional support had the largest and most consistent associations across depression outcomes (incidence rate ratios ranging from 1.55-9.97 for loneliness and from 1.23-1.40 for unmet support, p's < 0.05). All social relationship domains except marital status were independently associated with depressive symptoms whereas only loneliness and unmet support were associated with depressive disorder. Conclusions: Perceived quality and frequency of social relationships are associated with clinical depression and depressive symptoms across a wide adult age spectrum. This study extends prior work linking loneliness to depression by showing that a broad range of social relationship domains are associated with psychological well-being.

AB - Background: The quality and quantity of social relationships are associated with depression but there is less evidence regarding which aspects of social relationships are most predictive. We evaluated the relative magnitude and independence of the association of four social relationship domains with major depressive disorder and depressive symptoms. Methods. We analyzed a cross-sectional telephone interview and postal survey of a probability sample of adults living in Switzerland (N = 12,286). Twelve-month major depressive disorder was assessed via structured interview over the telephone using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). The postal survey assessed depressive symptoms as well as variables representing emotional support, tangible support, social integration, and loneliness. Results: Each individual social relationship domain was associated with both outcome measures, but in multivariate models being lonely and perceiving unmet emotional support had the largest and most consistent associations across depression outcomes (incidence rate ratios ranging from 1.55-9.97 for loneliness and from 1.23-1.40 for unmet support, p's < 0.05). All social relationship domains except marital status were independently associated with depressive symptoms whereas only loneliness and unmet support were associated with depressive disorder. Conclusions: Perceived quality and frequency of social relationships are associated with clinical depression and depressive symptoms across a wide adult age spectrum. This study extends prior work linking loneliness to depression by showing that a broad range of social relationship domains are associated with psychological well-being.

KW - Depression

KW - Social

KW - Social isolation

KW - Social networks

KW - Support

KW - Swiss Health Survey

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84899088036&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84899088036&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1186/1471-2458-14-273

DO - 10.1186/1471-2458-14-273

M3 - Article

C2 - 24656048

AN - SCOPUS:84899088036

VL - 14

JO - BMC Public Health

JF - BMC Public Health

SN - 1471-2458

IS - 1

M1 - 273

ER -