Sequence and organization of pXO1, the large Bacillus anthracis plasmid harboring the anthrax toxin genes

R. T. Okinaka, K. Cloud, O. Hampton, A. R. Hoffmaster, K. K. Hill, Paul S Keim, T. M. Koehler, G. Lamke, S. Kumano, J. Mahillon, D. Manter, Y. Martinez, D. Ricke, R. Svensson, P. J. Jackson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

277 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The Bacillus anthracis Sterne plasmid pXO1 was sequenced by random, 'shotgun' cloning. A circular sequence of 181,654 bp was generated. One hundred forty-three open reading frames (ORFs) were predicted using GeneMark and GeneMark.hmm, comprising only 61% (110,817 bp) of the pXO1 DNA sequence. The overall guanine-plus-cytosine content of the plasmid is 32.5%. The most recognizable feature of the plasmid is a 'pathogenicity island,' defined by a 44.8-kb region that is bordered by inverted IS1627 elements at each end. This region contains the three toxin genes (cya, lef, and pagA), regulatory elements controlling the toxin genes, three germination response genes, and 19 additional ORFs. Nearly 70% of the ORFs on pXO1 do not have significant similarity to sequences available in open databases. Absent from the pXO1 sequence are homologs to genes that are typically required to drive theta replication and to maintain stability of large plasmids in Bacillus spp. Among the ORFs with a high degree of similarity to known sequences are a collection of putative transposases, resolvases, and integrases, suggesting an evolution involving lateral movement of DNA among species. Among the remaining ORFs, there are three sequences that may encode enzymes responsible for the synthesis of a polysaccharide capsule usually associated with serotype-specific virulent streptococci.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)6509-6515
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Bacteriology
Volume181
Issue number20
StatePublished - Oct 1999

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Bacillus anthracis
Open Reading Frames
Plasmids
Genes
Transposases
Genomic Islands
Integrases
Recombinases
Base Composition
Firearms
Sequence Homology
Germination
Streptococcus
Bacillus
Capsules
Polysaccharides
Organism Cloning
anthrax toxin
Databases
DNA

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
  • Immunology

Cite this

Okinaka, R. T., Cloud, K., Hampton, O., Hoffmaster, A. R., Hill, K. K., Keim, P. S., ... Jackson, P. J. (1999). Sequence and organization of pXO1, the large Bacillus anthracis plasmid harboring the anthrax toxin genes. Journal of Bacteriology, 181(20), 6509-6515.

Sequence and organization of pXO1, the large Bacillus anthracis plasmid harboring the anthrax toxin genes. / Okinaka, R. T.; Cloud, K.; Hampton, O.; Hoffmaster, A. R.; Hill, K. K.; Keim, Paul S; Koehler, T. M.; Lamke, G.; Kumano, S.; Mahillon, J.; Manter, D.; Martinez, Y.; Ricke, D.; Svensson, R.; Jackson, P. J.

In: Journal of Bacteriology, Vol. 181, No. 20, 10.1999, p. 6509-6515.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Okinaka, RT, Cloud, K, Hampton, O, Hoffmaster, AR, Hill, KK, Keim, PS, Koehler, TM, Lamke, G, Kumano, S, Mahillon, J, Manter, D, Martinez, Y, Ricke, D, Svensson, R & Jackson, PJ 1999, 'Sequence and organization of pXO1, the large Bacillus anthracis plasmid harboring the anthrax toxin genes', Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 181, no. 20, pp. 6509-6515.
Okinaka RT, Cloud K, Hampton O, Hoffmaster AR, Hill KK, Keim PS et al. Sequence and organization of pXO1, the large Bacillus anthracis plasmid harboring the anthrax toxin genes. Journal of Bacteriology. 1999 Oct;181(20):6509-6515.
Okinaka, R. T. ; Cloud, K. ; Hampton, O. ; Hoffmaster, A. R. ; Hill, K. K. ; Keim, Paul S ; Koehler, T. M. ; Lamke, G. ; Kumano, S. ; Mahillon, J. ; Manter, D. ; Martinez, Y. ; Ricke, D. ; Svensson, R. ; Jackson, P. J. / Sequence and organization of pXO1, the large Bacillus anthracis plasmid harboring the anthrax toxin genes. In: Journal of Bacteriology. 1999 ; Vol. 181, No. 20. pp. 6509-6515.
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abstract = "The Bacillus anthracis Sterne plasmid pXO1 was sequenced by random, 'shotgun' cloning. A circular sequence of 181,654 bp was generated. One hundred forty-three open reading frames (ORFs) were predicted using GeneMark and GeneMark.hmm, comprising only 61{\%} (110,817 bp) of the pXO1 DNA sequence. The overall guanine-plus-cytosine content of the plasmid is 32.5{\%}. The most recognizable feature of the plasmid is a 'pathogenicity island,' defined by a 44.8-kb region that is bordered by inverted IS1627 elements at each end. This region contains the three toxin genes (cya, lef, and pagA), regulatory elements controlling the toxin genes, three germination response genes, and 19 additional ORFs. Nearly 70{\%} of the ORFs on pXO1 do not have significant similarity to sequences available in open databases. Absent from the pXO1 sequence are homologs to genes that are typically required to drive theta replication and to maintain stability of large plasmids in Bacillus spp. Among the ORFs with a high degree of similarity to known sequences are a collection of putative transposases, resolvases, and integrases, suggesting an evolution involving lateral movement of DNA among species. Among the remaining ORFs, there are three sequences that may encode enzymes responsible for the synthesis of a polysaccharide capsule usually associated with serotype-specific virulent streptococci.",
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