Reference conditions and historical fine-scale spatial dynamics in a dry mixed-conifer forest, Arizona, USA

Kyle C. Rodman, Andrew J Sanchez Meador, David W. Huffman, Kristen M Waring

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

To improve the knowledge of ecosystem dynamics within frequent-fire forests and to develop targets for forest restoration, we dendrochronologically reconstructed four 1-ha plots within dry mixed-conifer forests in northern Arizona, USA. Forest densities in the study area increased from 139.8 live trees ha-1, 10.26 m2 of basal area ha1, and 14.9% canopy cover in 1879 (the assumed year of fire exclusion) to 1,116.8 live trees ha-1, 42.23 m2 of basal area ha-1, and 55.3% canopy cover in 2014. Shade-tolerant species also became more prevalent. Initial increases in tree density occurred near the established overstory or randomly throughout each stand, rather than within canopy gaps. Tree spatial patterns were random or aggregated in 1879 and 88.3% of trees were isolated individuals or in groups of 2-4 trees. Sprouting hardwoods and shade-tolerant conifers were more likely than other tree species to have been members of groups, whereas shade-intolerant conifers were more likely to be isolated individuals. Relative shade tolerance and the reproductive strategies of component species contribute to fine-scale spatial patterns in mixed-species forests. This interaction between species silvics and fine-scale spatial patterns is an important consideration for management activities targeting heterogeneity and the natural ranges of variability in frequent-fire forests.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)268-280
Number of pages13
JournalForest Science
Volume62
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 17 2016

Fingerprint

mixed forests
coniferous forests
coniferous tree
shade
forest fires
forest fire
basal area
conifers
canopy
shade tolerance
forest restoration
canopy gap
canopy gaps
ecosystem dynamics
overstory
sprouting
hardwood
reproductive strategy
targeting
ecosystems

Keywords

  • Community ecology
  • Dendrochronological reconstruction
  • Dry mixed-conifer
  • Frequent-fire forests
  • Spatial statistics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Forestry
  • Ecological Modeling
  • Ecology

Cite this

Reference conditions and historical fine-scale spatial dynamics in a dry mixed-conifer forest, Arizona, USA. / Rodman, Kyle C.; Sanchez Meador, Andrew J; Huffman, David W.; Waring, Kristen M.

In: Forest Science, Vol. 62, No. 3, 17.06.2016, p. 268-280.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{66781feb47034e1a813a53c6c08f04fb,
title = "Reference conditions and historical fine-scale spatial dynamics in a dry mixed-conifer forest, Arizona, USA",
abstract = "To improve the knowledge of ecosystem dynamics within frequent-fire forests and to develop targets for forest restoration, we dendrochronologically reconstructed four 1-ha plots within dry mixed-conifer forests in northern Arizona, USA. Forest densities in the study area increased from 139.8 live trees ha-1, 10.26 m2 of basal area ha1, and 14.9{\%} canopy cover in 1879 (the assumed year of fire exclusion) to 1,116.8 live trees ha-1, 42.23 m2 of basal area ha-1, and 55.3{\%} canopy cover in 2014. Shade-tolerant species also became more prevalent. Initial increases in tree density occurred near the established overstory or randomly throughout each stand, rather than within canopy gaps. Tree spatial patterns were random or aggregated in 1879 and 88.3{\%} of trees were isolated individuals or in groups of 2-4 trees. Sprouting hardwoods and shade-tolerant conifers were more likely than other tree species to have been members of groups, whereas shade-intolerant conifers were more likely to be isolated individuals. Relative shade tolerance and the reproductive strategies of component species contribute to fine-scale spatial patterns in mixed-species forests. This interaction between species silvics and fine-scale spatial patterns is an important consideration for management activities targeting heterogeneity and the natural ranges of variability in frequent-fire forests.",
keywords = "Community ecology, Dendrochronological reconstruction, Dry mixed-conifer, Frequent-fire forests, Spatial statistics",
author = "Rodman, {Kyle C.} and {Sanchez Meador}, {Andrew J} and Huffman, {David W.} and Waring, {Kristen M}",
year = "2016",
month = "6",
day = "17",
doi = "10.5849/forsci.15-136",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "62",
pages = "268--280",
journal = "Forest Science",
issn = "0015-749X",
publisher = "Society of American Foresters",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Reference conditions and historical fine-scale spatial dynamics in a dry mixed-conifer forest, Arizona, USA

AU - Rodman, Kyle C.

AU - Sanchez Meador, Andrew J

AU - Huffman, David W.

AU - Waring, Kristen M

PY - 2016/6/17

Y1 - 2016/6/17

N2 - To improve the knowledge of ecosystem dynamics within frequent-fire forests and to develop targets for forest restoration, we dendrochronologically reconstructed four 1-ha plots within dry mixed-conifer forests in northern Arizona, USA. Forest densities in the study area increased from 139.8 live trees ha-1, 10.26 m2 of basal area ha1, and 14.9% canopy cover in 1879 (the assumed year of fire exclusion) to 1,116.8 live trees ha-1, 42.23 m2 of basal area ha-1, and 55.3% canopy cover in 2014. Shade-tolerant species also became more prevalent. Initial increases in tree density occurred near the established overstory or randomly throughout each stand, rather than within canopy gaps. Tree spatial patterns were random or aggregated in 1879 and 88.3% of trees were isolated individuals or in groups of 2-4 trees. Sprouting hardwoods and shade-tolerant conifers were more likely than other tree species to have been members of groups, whereas shade-intolerant conifers were more likely to be isolated individuals. Relative shade tolerance and the reproductive strategies of component species contribute to fine-scale spatial patterns in mixed-species forests. This interaction between species silvics and fine-scale spatial patterns is an important consideration for management activities targeting heterogeneity and the natural ranges of variability in frequent-fire forests.

AB - To improve the knowledge of ecosystem dynamics within frequent-fire forests and to develop targets for forest restoration, we dendrochronologically reconstructed four 1-ha plots within dry mixed-conifer forests in northern Arizona, USA. Forest densities in the study area increased from 139.8 live trees ha-1, 10.26 m2 of basal area ha1, and 14.9% canopy cover in 1879 (the assumed year of fire exclusion) to 1,116.8 live trees ha-1, 42.23 m2 of basal area ha-1, and 55.3% canopy cover in 2014. Shade-tolerant species also became more prevalent. Initial increases in tree density occurred near the established overstory or randomly throughout each stand, rather than within canopy gaps. Tree spatial patterns were random or aggregated in 1879 and 88.3% of trees were isolated individuals or in groups of 2-4 trees. Sprouting hardwoods and shade-tolerant conifers were more likely than other tree species to have been members of groups, whereas shade-intolerant conifers were more likely to be isolated individuals. Relative shade tolerance and the reproductive strategies of component species contribute to fine-scale spatial patterns in mixed-species forests. This interaction between species silvics and fine-scale spatial patterns is an important consideration for management activities targeting heterogeneity and the natural ranges of variability in frequent-fire forests.

KW - Community ecology

KW - Dendrochronological reconstruction

KW - Dry mixed-conifer

KW - Frequent-fire forests

KW - Spatial statistics

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84974855844&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84974855844&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.5849/forsci.15-136

DO - 10.5849/forsci.15-136

M3 - Article

VL - 62

SP - 268

EP - 280

JO - Forest Science

JF - Forest Science

SN - 0015-749X

IS - 3

ER -