Population genetics of vibrio cholerae from Nepal in 2010

Evidence on the origin of the haitian outbreak

Rene S. Hendriksen, Lance B. Price, James M. Schupp, John D. Gillece, Rolf S. Kaas, David M. Engelthaler, Valeria Bortolaia, Talima R Pearson, Andrew E. Waters, Bishnu Prasad Upadhyay, Sirjana Devi Shrestha, Shailaja Adhikari, Geeta Shaky, Paul S Keim, Frank M. Aarestrupa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

155 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Cholera continues to be an important cause of human infections, and outbreaks are often observed after natural disasters, such as the one following the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. Once the cholera outbreak was confirmed, rumors spread that the disease was brought to Haiti by a battalion of Nepalese soldiers serving as United Nations peacekeepers. This possible connection has never been confirmed. We used whole-genome sequence typing (WGST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and antimicrobial susceptibility testing to characterize 24 recent Vibrio cholerae isolates from Nepal and evaluate the suggested epidemiological link with the Haitian outbreak. The isolates were obtained from 30 July to 1 November 2010 from five different districts in Nepal. We compared the 24 genomes to 10 previously sequenced V. cholerae isolates, including 3 from the Haitian outbreak (began July 2010). Antimicrobial susceptibility and PFGE patterns were consistent with an epidemiological link between the isolates from Nepal and Haiti. WGST showed that all 24 V. cholerae isolates from Nepal belonged to a single monophyletic group that also contained isolates from Bangladesh and Haiti. The Nepalese isolates were divided into four closely related clusters. One cluster contained three Nepalese isolates and three Haitian isolates that were almost identical, with only 1- or 2-bp differences. Results in this study are consistent with Nepal as the origin of the Haitian outbreak. This highlights how rapidly infectious diseases might be transmitted globally through international travel and how public health officials need advanced molecular tools along with standard epidemiological analyses to quickly determine the sources of outbreaks. IMPORTANCE: Cholera is one of the ancient classical diseases and particularly prone to cause major outbreaks following major natural disasters, such as earthquakes and hurricanes, where the normal separation between sewage and drinking water is destroyed. This was the case following the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. Rumors spread that the disease was brought to Haiti by a battalion of Nepalese soldiers serving as United Nations peacekeepers. This possible connection has never been confirmed. Sequencing the genomes of bacteria can give detailed information on whether isolates from different sites share a common origin. We used this technology to sequence isolates of Vibrio cholerae from Nepal, identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and compare these high-resolution genotypes to the complete genome sequences of isolates from the Haiti outbreak. We provide support for the hypothesis that the isolates were brought to Haiti from Nepal.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalmBio
Volume2
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2011

Fingerprint

Haiti
Nepal
Vibrio cholerae
Population Genetics
Disease Outbreaks
Earthquakes
Genome
Cholera
United Nations
Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis
Military Personnel
Disasters
Cyclonic Storms
Bangladesh
Sewage
Drinking Water
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
Communicable Diseases
Public Health
Genotype

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Virology

Cite this

Hendriksen, R. S., Price, L. B., Schupp, J. M., Gillece, J. D., Kaas, R. S., Engelthaler, D. M., ... Aarestrupa, F. M. (2011). Population genetics of vibrio cholerae from Nepal in 2010: Evidence on the origin of the haitian outbreak. mBio, 2(4). https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00157-11

Population genetics of vibrio cholerae from Nepal in 2010 : Evidence on the origin of the haitian outbreak. / Hendriksen, Rene S.; Price, Lance B.; Schupp, James M.; Gillece, John D.; Kaas, Rolf S.; Engelthaler, David M.; Bortolaia, Valeria; Pearson, Talima R; Waters, Andrew E.; Upadhyay, Bishnu Prasad; Shrestha, Sirjana Devi; Adhikari, Shailaja; Shaky, Geeta; Keim, Paul S; Aarestrupa, Frank M.

In: mBio, Vol. 2, No. 4, 07.2011.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hendriksen, RS, Price, LB, Schupp, JM, Gillece, JD, Kaas, RS, Engelthaler, DM, Bortolaia, V, Pearson, TR, Waters, AE, Upadhyay, BP, Shrestha, SD, Adhikari, S, Shaky, G, Keim, PS & Aarestrupa, FM 2011, 'Population genetics of vibrio cholerae from Nepal in 2010: Evidence on the origin of the haitian outbreak', mBio, vol. 2, no. 4. https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00157-11
Hendriksen RS, Price LB, Schupp JM, Gillece JD, Kaas RS, Engelthaler DM et al. Population genetics of vibrio cholerae from Nepal in 2010: Evidence on the origin of the haitian outbreak. mBio. 2011 Jul;2(4). https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00157-11
Hendriksen, Rene S. ; Price, Lance B. ; Schupp, James M. ; Gillece, John D. ; Kaas, Rolf S. ; Engelthaler, David M. ; Bortolaia, Valeria ; Pearson, Talima R ; Waters, Andrew E. ; Upadhyay, Bishnu Prasad ; Shrestha, Sirjana Devi ; Adhikari, Shailaja ; Shaky, Geeta ; Keim, Paul S ; Aarestrupa, Frank M. / Population genetics of vibrio cholerae from Nepal in 2010 : Evidence on the origin of the haitian outbreak. In: mBio. 2011 ; Vol. 2, No. 4.
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