Pinyon pine (Pinus edulis) mortality and response to water addition across a three million year substrate age gradient in northern Arizona, USA

Christopher E. Looney, Benjamin W. Sullivan, Thomas E Kolb, Jeffrey M. Kane, Stephen C. Hart

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background and aims: Pinyon pine (Pinus edulis Engelm.) is an important tree species in the western United States that has experienced large-scale mortality during recent severe drought. The influence of soil conditions on pinyon pine response to water availability is poorly understood. We investigated patterns of tree mortality and response of tree water relations and growth to experimental water addition at four sites across a three million year soil-substrate age gradient. Methods: We measured recent pinyon mortality at four sites, and tree predawn water potential, leaf carbon isotope signature, and branch, leaf, and stem radial growth on 12 watered and unwatered trees at each site. Watered trees recieved fifty percent more than growing season precipitation for 6 years. Results: Substrate age generally had a greater effect on tree water stress and growth than water additions. Pinyon mortality was higher on intermediate-aged substrates (50-55%) than on young (15%) and old (17%) substrates, and mortality was positively correlated with pinyon abundance prior to drought. Conclusions: These results suggest high soil resource availability and consequent high stand densities at intermediate-age substrates predisposes trees to drought-induced mortality in semi-arid regions. The response of tree water relations to water addition was consistent with the inverse texture hypothesis; watering reduced tree water stress most in young, coarsely textured soil, likely because water rapidly penetrated deep in the soil profile where it was protected from evapotranspiration.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)89-102
Number of pages14
JournalPlant and Soil
Volume357
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2012

Fingerprint

Pinus edulis
mortality
substrate
water
drought
water relations
water stress
soil resources
Western United States
tree mortality
stand density
leaf water potential
branches
resource availability
arid zones
semiarid region
soil profiles
evapotranspiration
water availability
soil

Keywords

  • Growth
  • Mortality
  • Pinus edulis
  • Pinyon pine
  • Substrate age gradient
  • Water additions
  • Water relations

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Soil Science
  • Plant Science

Cite this

Pinyon pine (Pinus edulis) mortality and response to water addition across a three million year substrate age gradient in northern Arizona, USA. / Looney, Christopher E.; Sullivan, Benjamin W.; Kolb, Thomas E; Kane, Jeffrey M.; Hart, Stephen C.

In: Plant and Soil, Vol. 357, No. 1, 08.2012, p. 89-102.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Looney, Christopher E. ; Sullivan, Benjamin W. ; Kolb, Thomas E ; Kane, Jeffrey M. ; Hart, Stephen C. / Pinyon pine (Pinus edulis) mortality and response to water addition across a three million year substrate age gradient in northern Arizona, USA. In: Plant and Soil. 2012 ; Vol. 357, No. 1. pp. 89-102.
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abstract = "Background and aims: Pinyon pine (Pinus edulis Engelm.) is an important tree species in the western United States that has experienced large-scale mortality during recent severe drought. The influence of soil conditions on pinyon pine response to water availability is poorly understood. We investigated patterns of tree mortality and response of tree water relations and growth to experimental water addition at four sites across a three million year soil-substrate age gradient. Methods: We measured recent pinyon mortality at four sites, and tree predawn water potential, leaf carbon isotope signature, and branch, leaf, and stem radial growth on 12 watered and unwatered trees at each site. Watered trees recieved fifty percent more than growing season precipitation for 6 years. Results: Substrate age generally had a greater effect on tree water stress and growth than water additions. Pinyon mortality was higher on intermediate-aged substrates (50-55{\%}) than on young (15{\%}) and old (17{\%}) substrates, and mortality was positively correlated with pinyon abundance prior to drought. Conclusions: These results suggest high soil resource availability and consequent high stand densities at intermediate-age substrates predisposes trees to drought-induced mortality in semi-arid regions. The response of tree water relations to water addition was consistent with the inverse texture hypothesis; watering reduced tree water stress most in young, coarsely textured soil, likely because water rapidly penetrated deep in the soil profile where it was protected from evapotranspiration.",
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AB - Background and aims: Pinyon pine (Pinus edulis Engelm.) is an important tree species in the western United States that has experienced large-scale mortality during recent severe drought. The influence of soil conditions on pinyon pine response to water availability is poorly understood. We investigated patterns of tree mortality and response of tree water relations and growth to experimental water addition at four sites across a three million year soil-substrate age gradient. Methods: We measured recent pinyon mortality at four sites, and tree predawn water potential, leaf carbon isotope signature, and branch, leaf, and stem radial growth on 12 watered and unwatered trees at each site. Watered trees recieved fifty percent more than growing season precipitation for 6 years. Results: Substrate age generally had a greater effect on tree water stress and growth than water additions. Pinyon mortality was higher on intermediate-aged substrates (50-55%) than on young (15%) and old (17%) substrates, and mortality was positively correlated with pinyon abundance prior to drought. Conclusions: These results suggest high soil resource availability and consequent high stand densities at intermediate-age substrates predisposes trees to drought-induced mortality in semi-arid regions. The response of tree water relations to water addition was consistent with the inverse texture hypothesis; watering reduced tree water stress most in young, coarsely textured soil, likely because water rapidly penetrated deep in the soil profile where it was protected from evapotranspiration.

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