Paleoclimate History of the Arctic

G. H. Miller, J. Brigham-Grette, R. B. Alley, L. Anderson, H. A. Bauch, M. S.V. Douglas, M. E. Edwards, S. A. Elias, B. P. Finney, J. J. Fitzpatrick, S. V. Funder, A. Geirsdóttir, T. D. Herbert, L. D. Hinzman, Darrell S Kaufman, G. M. MacDonald, L. Polyak, A. Robock, M. C. Serreze, J. P. Smol & 4 others R. Spielhagen, J. W.C. White, A. P. Wolfe, E. W. Wolff

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Although the Arctic occupies less than 5% of the Earth's surface, it includes some of the strongest positive feedbacks in the climate system. Reconstructing the climate history of the Quaternary requires a suite of climate proxies that can be placed in a secure time frame. Most Arctic proxies reflect past summer temperatures, although a subset is sensitive to winter temperatures and/or precipitation. During the Quaternary, the Arctic has experienced a greater change in temperature, vegetation, and ocean surface characteristics than has any other Northern Hemisphere latitudinal band. Arctic temperature amplification is a consequence of several strong positive feedbacks. They include the fast feedbacks of snow and ice albedo, sea-ice insulation, vegetation, and permafrost, as well as a suite of slower responding feedbacks operating on glacial-interglacial timescales tied to the growth and decay of aerially extensive, thick continental ice sheets. Large changes in Arctic temperatures impact regions outside the Arctic through their proximal influence on the planetary energy balance and circulation of the Northern Hemisphere atmosphere and ocean, and with potential global impacts through changes in sea level, the release of greenhouse gases, and impacts on the ocean's meridional overturning circulation. Quantitative paleoclimate reconstructions for specific cold and warm times during the Quaternary suggest that Arctic temperature changes have been 3 to 4 times the corresponding hemispheric or globally averaged changes. This article provides a brief overview of climate changes leading up to the last ice age, then overviews the changes in Arctic climate during the Quaternary.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationEncyclopedia of Quaternary Science
Subtitle of host publicationSecond Edition
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Pages113-125
Number of pages13
ISBN (Electronic)9780444536433
ISBN (Print)9780444536426
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2013

Fingerprint

paleoclimate
history
temperature
climate
Northern Hemisphere
vegetation
meridional circulation
ocean
insulation
interglacial
permafrost
energy balance
ice sheet
albedo
sea ice
sea surface
amplification
greenhouse gas
snow
sea level

Keywords

  • Arctic amplification
  • Arctic paleoclimate
  • Climate feedbacks
  • Climate proxies
  • Solar irradiance
  • Volcanism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)

Cite this

Miller, G. H., Brigham-Grette, J., Alley, R. B., Anderson, L., Bauch, H. A., Douglas, M. S. V., ... Wolff, E. W. (2013). Paleoclimate History of the Arctic. In Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science: Second Edition (pp. 113-125). Elsevier Inc.. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-53643-3.00030-3

Paleoclimate History of the Arctic. / Miller, G. H.; Brigham-Grette, J.; Alley, R. B.; Anderson, L.; Bauch, H. A.; Douglas, M. S.V.; Edwards, M. E.; Elias, S. A.; Finney, B. P.; Fitzpatrick, J. J.; Funder, S. V.; Geirsdóttir, A.; Herbert, T. D.; Hinzman, L. D.; Kaufman, Darrell S; MacDonald, G. M.; Polyak, L.; Robock, A.; Serreze, M. C.; Smol, J. P.; Spielhagen, R.; White, J. W.C.; Wolfe, A. P.; Wolff, E. W.

Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science: Second Edition. Elsevier Inc., 2013. p. 113-125.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Miller, GH, Brigham-Grette, J, Alley, RB, Anderson, L, Bauch, HA, Douglas, MSV, Edwards, ME, Elias, SA, Finney, BP, Fitzpatrick, JJ, Funder, SV, Geirsdóttir, A, Herbert, TD, Hinzman, LD, Kaufman, DS, MacDonald, GM, Polyak, L, Robock, A, Serreze, MC, Smol, JP, Spielhagen, R, White, JWC, Wolfe, AP & Wolff, EW 2013, Paleoclimate History of the Arctic. in Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science: Second Edition. Elsevier Inc., pp. 113-125. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-53643-3.00030-3
Miller GH, Brigham-Grette J, Alley RB, Anderson L, Bauch HA, Douglas MSV et al. Paleoclimate History of the Arctic. In Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science: Second Edition. Elsevier Inc. 2013. p. 113-125 https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-53643-3.00030-3
Miller, G. H. ; Brigham-Grette, J. ; Alley, R. B. ; Anderson, L. ; Bauch, H. A. ; Douglas, M. S.V. ; Edwards, M. E. ; Elias, S. A. ; Finney, B. P. ; Fitzpatrick, J. J. ; Funder, S. V. ; Geirsdóttir, A. ; Herbert, T. D. ; Hinzman, L. D. ; Kaufman, Darrell S ; MacDonald, G. M. ; Polyak, L. ; Robock, A. ; Serreze, M. C. ; Smol, J. P. ; Spielhagen, R. ; White, J. W.C. ; Wolfe, A. P. ; Wolff, E. W. / Paleoclimate History of the Arctic. Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science: Second Edition. Elsevier Inc., 2013. pp. 113-125
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