Muscle damage and muscle remodeling

No pain, no gain?

Kyle L. Flann, Paul C. Lastayo, Donald A. McClain, Mark Hazel, Stan L Lindstedt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

69 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Skeletal muscle is a dynamic tissue that responds adaptively to both the nature and intensity of muscle use. This phenotypic plasticity ensures that muscle structure is linked to patterns of muscle use throughout the lifetime of an animal. The cascade of events that result in muscle restructuring - for example, in response to resistance exercise training - is often thought to be initiated by muscle damage. We designed this study to test the hypothesis that symptomatic (i.e. detectable) damage is a necessary precursor for muscle remodeling. Subjects were divided into two experimental populations: pre-trained (PT) and naive (NA). Demonstrable muscle damage was avoided in the PT group by a three-week gradual 'ramp-up' protocol. By contrast, the NA group was subjected to an initial damaging bout of exercise. Both groups participated in an eight-week high-force eccentric-cycle ergometry program (20min, three times per week) designed to equate the total work done during training between the groups. The NA group experienced signs of damage, absent in the PT group, as indicated by greater than five times higher levels of plasma creatine kinase (CK) and self-reporting of initial perceived soreness and exertion, yet muscle size and strength gains were not different for the two groups. RT-PCR analysis revealed similar increases in levels of the growth factor IGF-1Ea mRNA in both groups. Likewise, the significant (P<0.01) increases in mean cross-sectional area (and total muscle volume) were equal in both groups. Finally, strength increases were identical for both groups (PT=25% and NA=26% improvement). The results of this study suggest that muscle rebuilding - for example, hypertrophy - can be initiated independent of any discernible damage to the muscle.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)674-679
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Experimental Biology
Volume214
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2011

Fingerprint

muscle
Muscles
muscles
damage
Ergometry
Architectural Accessibility
Resistance Training
strength training
Muscle Strength
Creatine Kinase
creatine kinase
Hypertrophy
phenotypic plasticity
strength (mechanics)
hypertrophy
growth factors
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
Skeletal Muscle
skeletal muscle
exercise

Keywords

  • Creatine kinase
  • Eccentric exercise
  • Hypertrophy
  • IGF

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Molecular Biology
  • Physiology
  • Insect Science
  • Aquatic Science

Cite this

Muscle damage and muscle remodeling : No pain, no gain? / Flann, Kyle L.; Lastayo, Paul C.; McClain, Donald A.; Hazel, Mark; Lindstedt, Stan L.

In: Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol. 214, No. 4, 02.2011, p. 674-679.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Flann, Kyle L. ; Lastayo, Paul C. ; McClain, Donald A. ; Hazel, Mark ; Lindstedt, Stan L. / Muscle damage and muscle remodeling : No pain, no gain?. In: Journal of Experimental Biology. 2011 ; Vol. 214, No. 4. pp. 674-679.
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