Massive dispersal of coxiella burnetii among cattle across the United States

Sonora Olivas, Heidie Hornstra, Rachael A. Priestley, Emily Kaufman, Crystal Hepp, Derek L. Sonderegger, Karthik Handady, Robert F. Massung, Paul Keim, Gilbert J. Kersh, Talima Pearson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Q-fever is an underreported disease caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii, which is highly infectious and has the ability to disperse great distances. It is a completely clonal pathogen with low genetic diversity and requires whole-genome analysis to identify discriminating features among closely related isolates. C. burnetii, and in particular one genotype (ST20), is commonly found in cow’s milk across the entire dairy industry of the USA. This single genotype dominance is suggestive of host-specific adaptation, rapid dispersal and persistence within cattle. We used a comparative genomic approach to identify SNPs for high-resolution and high-throughput genotyping assays to better describe the dispersal of ST20 across the USA. We genotyped 507 ST20 cow milk samples and discovered three subgenotypes, all of which were present across the entire country and over the complete time period studied. Only one of these sub-genotypes was observed in a single dairy herd. The temporal and geographic distribution of these sub-genotypes is consistent with a model of large-scale, rapid, frequent and continuous dissemination on a continental scale. The distribution of subgenotypes is not consistent with wind-based dispersal alone, and it is likely that animal husbandry and transportation practices, including pooling of milk from multiple herds, have also shaped the patterns. On the scale of an entire country, there appear to be few barriers to rapid, frequent and large-scale dissemination of the ST20 subgenotypes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalMicrobial genomics
Volume2
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2016

Fingerprint

Coxiella burnetii
Genotype
Milk
Dairying
Animal Husbandry
Q Fever
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
Genome
Bacteria

Keywords

  • CanSNP
  • Coxiella burnetii
  • Dairy cattle
  • Genotyping
  • Phylogeography
  • Q fever
  • SNP typing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Molecular Biology
  • Microbiology
  • Epidemiology

Cite this

Massive dispersal of coxiella burnetii among cattle across the United States. / Olivas, Sonora; Hornstra, Heidie; Priestley, Rachael A.; Kaufman, Emily; Hepp, Crystal; Sonderegger, Derek L.; Handady, Karthik; Massung, Robert F.; Keim, Paul; Kersh, Gilbert J.; Pearson, Talima.

In: Microbial genomics, Vol. 2, No. 8, 01.08.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Olivas, S, Hornstra, H, Priestley, RA, Kaufman, E, Hepp, C, Sonderegger, DL, Handady, K, Massung, RF, Keim, P, Kersh, GJ & Pearson, T 2016, 'Massive dispersal of coxiella burnetii among cattle across the United States', Microbial genomics, vol. 2, no. 8. https://doi.org/10.1099/mgen.0.000068
Olivas, Sonora ; Hornstra, Heidie ; Priestley, Rachael A. ; Kaufman, Emily ; Hepp, Crystal ; Sonderegger, Derek L. ; Handady, Karthik ; Massung, Robert F. ; Keim, Paul ; Kersh, Gilbert J. ; Pearson, Talima. / Massive dispersal of coxiella burnetii among cattle across the United States. In: Microbial genomics. 2016 ; Vol. 2, No. 8.
@article{8d803708945845648f8abcada1b59e3d,
title = "Massive dispersal of coxiella burnetii among cattle across the United States",
abstract = "Q-fever is an underreported disease caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii, which is highly infectious and has the ability to disperse great distances. It is a completely clonal pathogen with low genetic diversity and requires whole-genome analysis to identify discriminating features among closely related isolates. C. burnetii, and in particular one genotype (ST20), is commonly found in cow’s milk across the entire dairy industry of the USA. This single genotype dominance is suggestive of host-specific adaptation, rapid dispersal and persistence within cattle. We used a comparative genomic approach to identify SNPs for high-resolution and high-throughput genotyping assays to better describe the dispersal of ST20 across the USA. We genotyped 507 ST20 cow milk samples and discovered three subgenotypes, all of which were present across the entire country and over the complete time period studied. Only one of these sub-genotypes was observed in a single dairy herd. The temporal and geographic distribution of these sub-genotypes is consistent with a model of large-scale, rapid, frequent and continuous dissemination on a continental scale. The distribution of subgenotypes is not consistent with wind-based dispersal alone, and it is likely that animal husbandry and transportation practices, including pooling of milk from multiple herds, have also shaped the patterns. On the scale of an entire country, there appear to be few barriers to rapid, frequent and large-scale dissemination of the ST20 subgenotypes.",
keywords = "CanSNP, Coxiella burnetii, Dairy cattle, Genotyping, Phylogeography, Q fever, SNP typing",
author = "Sonora Olivas and Heidie Hornstra and Priestley, {Rachael A.} and Emily Kaufman and Crystal Hepp and Sonderegger, {Derek L.} and Karthik Handady and Massung, {Robert F.} and Paul Keim and Kersh, {Gilbert J.} and Talima Pearson",
year = "2016",
month = "8",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1099/mgen.0.000068",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "2",
journal = "Microbial genomics",
issn = "2057-5858",
publisher = "Microbiology Society",
number = "8",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Massive dispersal of coxiella burnetii among cattle across the United States

AU - Olivas, Sonora

AU - Hornstra, Heidie

AU - Priestley, Rachael A.

AU - Kaufman, Emily

AU - Hepp, Crystal

AU - Sonderegger, Derek L.

AU - Handady, Karthik

AU - Massung, Robert F.

AU - Keim, Paul

AU - Kersh, Gilbert J.

AU - Pearson, Talima

PY - 2016/8/1

Y1 - 2016/8/1

N2 - Q-fever is an underreported disease caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii, which is highly infectious and has the ability to disperse great distances. It is a completely clonal pathogen with low genetic diversity and requires whole-genome analysis to identify discriminating features among closely related isolates. C. burnetii, and in particular one genotype (ST20), is commonly found in cow’s milk across the entire dairy industry of the USA. This single genotype dominance is suggestive of host-specific adaptation, rapid dispersal and persistence within cattle. We used a comparative genomic approach to identify SNPs for high-resolution and high-throughput genotyping assays to better describe the dispersal of ST20 across the USA. We genotyped 507 ST20 cow milk samples and discovered three subgenotypes, all of which were present across the entire country and over the complete time period studied. Only one of these sub-genotypes was observed in a single dairy herd. The temporal and geographic distribution of these sub-genotypes is consistent with a model of large-scale, rapid, frequent and continuous dissemination on a continental scale. The distribution of subgenotypes is not consistent with wind-based dispersal alone, and it is likely that animal husbandry and transportation practices, including pooling of milk from multiple herds, have also shaped the patterns. On the scale of an entire country, there appear to be few barriers to rapid, frequent and large-scale dissemination of the ST20 subgenotypes.

AB - Q-fever is an underreported disease caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii, which is highly infectious and has the ability to disperse great distances. It is a completely clonal pathogen with low genetic diversity and requires whole-genome analysis to identify discriminating features among closely related isolates. C. burnetii, and in particular one genotype (ST20), is commonly found in cow’s milk across the entire dairy industry of the USA. This single genotype dominance is suggestive of host-specific adaptation, rapid dispersal and persistence within cattle. We used a comparative genomic approach to identify SNPs for high-resolution and high-throughput genotyping assays to better describe the dispersal of ST20 across the USA. We genotyped 507 ST20 cow milk samples and discovered three subgenotypes, all of which were present across the entire country and over the complete time period studied. Only one of these sub-genotypes was observed in a single dairy herd. The temporal and geographic distribution of these sub-genotypes is consistent with a model of large-scale, rapid, frequent and continuous dissemination on a continental scale. The distribution of subgenotypes is not consistent with wind-based dispersal alone, and it is likely that animal husbandry and transportation practices, including pooling of milk from multiple herds, have also shaped the patterns. On the scale of an entire country, there appear to be few barriers to rapid, frequent and large-scale dissemination of the ST20 subgenotypes.

KW - CanSNP

KW - Coxiella burnetii

KW - Dairy cattle

KW - Genotyping

KW - Phylogeography

KW - Q fever

KW - SNP typing

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85030471157&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85030471157&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1099/mgen.0.000068

DO - 10.1099/mgen.0.000068

M3 - Article

VL - 2

JO - Microbial genomics

JF - Microbial genomics

SN - 2057-5858

IS - 8

ER -