We review the need for scaling effects of ozone (O3) from juvenile to mature forest trees, identify the knowledge presently available, and discuss limitations in scaling efforts. Recent findings on O3/soil nutrient and O3/CO2 interactions from controlled experiments suggest consistent scaling patterns for physiological responses of individual leaves to whole-plant growth, carbon allocation, and water use efficiency of juvenile trees. These findings on juvenile trees are used to develop hypotheses that are relevant to scaling O3 effects to mature trees, and these hypotheses are examined with respect to existing research on differences in response to O3 between juvenile and mature trees. Scaling patterns of leaf-level physiological response to O3 have not been consistent in previous comparisons between juvenile and mature trees. We review and synthesize current understanding of factors that may cause such inconsistent scaling patterns, including tree-size related changes in environment, stomatal conductance, O3 uptake and exposure, carbon allocation to defense, repair, and compensation mechanisms, and leaf production phenology. These factors should be considered in efforts to scale O3 responses during tree ontogeny. Free-air O3 fumigation experiments of forest canopies allow direct assessments of O3 impacts on physiological processes of mature trees, and provide the opportunity to test current hypotheses about ontogenetic variation in O3 sensitivity by comparing O3 responses across tree-internal scales and ontogeny.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Chemistry
- Atmospheric Science
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis