Interactions between plant growth and soil nutrient cycling under elevated CO2: A meta-analysis

Marie Anne de Graaff, Kees Jan van Groenigen, Johan Six, Bruce A Hungate, Chris van Kessel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

342 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) and open top chamber (OTC) studies are valuable tools for evaluating the impact of elevated atmospheric CO2 on nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Using meta-analytic techniques, we summarized the results of 117 studies on plant biomass production, soil organic matter dynamics and biological N2 fixation in FACE and OTC experiments. The objective of the analysis was to determine whether elevated CO2 alters nutrient cycling between plants and soil and if so, what the implications are for soil carbon (C) sequestration. Elevated CO2 stimulated gross N immobilization by 22%, whereas gross and net N mineralization rates remained unaffected. In addition, the soil C:N ratio and microbial N contents increased under elevated CO2 by 3.8% and 5.8%, respectively. Microbial C contents and soil respiration increased by 7.1% and 17.7%, respectively. Despite the stimulation of microbial activity, soil C input still caused soil C contents to increase by 1.2% yr-1. Namely, elevated CO2 stimulated overall above- and belowground plant biomass by 21.5% and 28.3%, respectively, thereby outweighing the increase in CO2 respiration. In addition, when comparing experiments under both low and high N availability, soil C contents (+2.2% yr-1) and above- and belowground plant growth (+20.1% and +33.7%) only increased under elevated CO2 in experiments receiving the high N treatments. Under low N availability, above- and belowground plant growth increased by only 8.8% and 14.6%, and soil C contents did not increase. Nitrogen fixation was stimulated by elevated CO2 only when additional nutrients were supplied. These results suggest that the main driver of soil C sequestration is soil C input through plant growth, which is strongly controlled by nutrient availability. In unfertilized ecosystems, microbial N immobilization enhances acclimation of plant growth to elevated CO2 in the long-term. Therefore, increased soil C input and soil C sequestration under elevated CO2 can only be sustained in the long-term when additional nutrients are supplied.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2077-2091
Number of pages15
JournalGlobal Change Biology
Volume12
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2006

Fingerprint

meta-analysis
nutrient cycling
soil nutrient
Nutrients
Soils
soil
carbon dioxide enrichment
carbon sequestration
open-top chamber
immobilization
Availability
Carbon Dioxide
Ecosystems
Biomass
nutrient
experiment
biomass
air
Nitrogen fixation
nitrogen fixation

Keywords

  • Elevated CO
  • Meta-analysis
  • Plant production
  • Soil N cycling
  • SoilC cycling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology
  • Global and Planetary Change
  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry

Cite this

Interactions between plant growth and soil nutrient cycling under elevated CO2 : A meta-analysis. / de Graaff, Marie Anne; van Groenigen, Kees Jan; Six, Johan; Hungate, Bruce A; van Kessel, Chris.

In: Global Change Biology, Vol. 12, No. 11, 11.2006, p. 2077-2091.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

de Graaff, Marie Anne ; van Groenigen, Kees Jan ; Six, Johan ; Hungate, Bruce A ; van Kessel, Chris. / Interactions between plant growth and soil nutrient cycling under elevated CO2 : A meta-analysis. In: Global Change Biology. 2006 ; Vol. 12, No. 11. pp. 2077-2091.
@article{3e0b387571fc4c9186d02f34e5ee0659,
title = "Interactions between plant growth and soil nutrient cycling under elevated CO2: A meta-analysis",
abstract = "Free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) and open top chamber (OTC) studies are valuable tools for evaluating the impact of elevated atmospheric CO2 on nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Using meta-analytic techniques, we summarized the results of 117 studies on plant biomass production, soil organic matter dynamics and biological N2 fixation in FACE and OTC experiments. The objective of the analysis was to determine whether elevated CO2 alters nutrient cycling between plants and soil and if so, what the implications are for soil carbon (C) sequestration. Elevated CO2 stimulated gross N immobilization by 22{\%}, whereas gross and net N mineralization rates remained unaffected. In addition, the soil C:N ratio and microbial N contents increased under elevated CO2 by 3.8{\%} and 5.8{\%}, respectively. Microbial C contents and soil respiration increased by 7.1{\%} and 17.7{\%}, respectively. Despite the stimulation of microbial activity, soil C input still caused soil C contents to increase by 1.2{\%} yr-1. Namely, elevated CO2 stimulated overall above- and belowground plant biomass by 21.5{\%} and 28.3{\%}, respectively, thereby outweighing the increase in CO2 respiration. In addition, when comparing experiments under both low and high N availability, soil C contents (+2.2{\%} yr-1) and above- and belowground plant growth (+20.1{\%} and +33.7{\%}) only increased under elevated CO2 in experiments receiving the high N treatments. Under low N availability, above- and belowground plant growth increased by only 8.8{\%} and 14.6{\%}, and soil C contents did not increase. Nitrogen fixation was stimulated by elevated CO2 only when additional nutrients were supplied. These results suggest that the main driver of soil C sequestration is soil C input through plant growth, which is strongly controlled by nutrient availability. In unfertilized ecosystems, microbial N immobilization enhances acclimation of plant growth to elevated CO2 in the long-term. Therefore, increased soil C input and soil C sequestration under elevated CO2 can only be sustained in the long-term when additional nutrients are supplied.",
keywords = "Elevated CO, Meta-analysis, Plant production, Soil N cycling, SoilC cycling",
author = "{de Graaff}, {Marie Anne} and {van Groenigen}, {Kees Jan} and Johan Six and Hungate, {Bruce A} and {van Kessel}, Chris",
year = "2006",
month = "11",
doi = "10.1111/j.1365-2486.2006.01240.x",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "12",
pages = "2077--2091",
journal = "Global Change Biology",
issn = "1354-1013",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
number = "11",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Interactions between plant growth and soil nutrient cycling under elevated CO2

T2 - A meta-analysis

AU - de Graaff, Marie Anne

AU - van Groenigen, Kees Jan

AU - Six, Johan

AU - Hungate, Bruce A

AU - van Kessel, Chris

PY - 2006/11

Y1 - 2006/11

N2 - Free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) and open top chamber (OTC) studies are valuable tools for evaluating the impact of elevated atmospheric CO2 on nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Using meta-analytic techniques, we summarized the results of 117 studies on plant biomass production, soil organic matter dynamics and biological N2 fixation in FACE and OTC experiments. The objective of the analysis was to determine whether elevated CO2 alters nutrient cycling between plants and soil and if so, what the implications are for soil carbon (C) sequestration. Elevated CO2 stimulated gross N immobilization by 22%, whereas gross and net N mineralization rates remained unaffected. In addition, the soil C:N ratio and microbial N contents increased under elevated CO2 by 3.8% and 5.8%, respectively. Microbial C contents and soil respiration increased by 7.1% and 17.7%, respectively. Despite the stimulation of microbial activity, soil C input still caused soil C contents to increase by 1.2% yr-1. Namely, elevated CO2 stimulated overall above- and belowground plant biomass by 21.5% and 28.3%, respectively, thereby outweighing the increase in CO2 respiration. In addition, when comparing experiments under both low and high N availability, soil C contents (+2.2% yr-1) and above- and belowground plant growth (+20.1% and +33.7%) only increased under elevated CO2 in experiments receiving the high N treatments. Under low N availability, above- and belowground plant growth increased by only 8.8% and 14.6%, and soil C contents did not increase. Nitrogen fixation was stimulated by elevated CO2 only when additional nutrients were supplied. These results suggest that the main driver of soil C sequestration is soil C input through plant growth, which is strongly controlled by nutrient availability. In unfertilized ecosystems, microbial N immobilization enhances acclimation of plant growth to elevated CO2 in the long-term. Therefore, increased soil C input and soil C sequestration under elevated CO2 can only be sustained in the long-term when additional nutrients are supplied.

AB - Free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) and open top chamber (OTC) studies are valuable tools for evaluating the impact of elevated atmospheric CO2 on nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Using meta-analytic techniques, we summarized the results of 117 studies on plant biomass production, soil organic matter dynamics and biological N2 fixation in FACE and OTC experiments. The objective of the analysis was to determine whether elevated CO2 alters nutrient cycling between plants and soil and if so, what the implications are for soil carbon (C) sequestration. Elevated CO2 stimulated gross N immobilization by 22%, whereas gross and net N mineralization rates remained unaffected. In addition, the soil C:N ratio and microbial N contents increased under elevated CO2 by 3.8% and 5.8%, respectively. Microbial C contents and soil respiration increased by 7.1% and 17.7%, respectively. Despite the stimulation of microbial activity, soil C input still caused soil C contents to increase by 1.2% yr-1. Namely, elevated CO2 stimulated overall above- and belowground plant biomass by 21.5% and 28.3%, respectively, thereby outweighing the increase in CO2 respiration. In addition, when comparing experiments under both low and high N availability, soil C contents (+2.2% yr-1) and above- and belowground plant growth (+20.1% and +33.7%) only increased under elevated CO2 in experiments receiving the high N treatments. Under low N availability, above- and belowground plant growth increased by only 8.8% and 14.6%, and soil C contents did not increase. Nitrogen fixation was stimulated by elevated CO2 only when additional nutrients were supplied. These results suggest that the main driver of soil C sequestration is soil C input through plant growth, which is strongly controlled by nutrient availability. In unfertilized ecosystems, microbial N immobilization enhances acclimation of plant growth to elevated CO2 in the long-term. Therefore, increased soil C input and soil C sequestration under elevated CO2 can only be sustained in the long-term when additional nutrients are supplied.

KW - Elevated CO

KW - Meta-analysis

KW - Plant production

KW - Soil N cycling

KW - SoilC cycling

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=33749868944&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=33749868944&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2006.01240.x

DO - 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2006.01240.x

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:33749868944

VL - 12

SP - 2077

EP - 2091

JO - Global Change Biology

JF - Global Change Biology

SN - 1354-1013

IS - 11

ER -