How e-communities extend the concept of exchange in marketing: An application of the motivation, opportunity, ability (MOA) theory

Thomas W. Gruen, Talaibek D Osmonbekov, Andrew J. Czaplewski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

58 Scopus citations


Customer-to-customer (C2C) know-how exchanges occur in a variety of contexts, including virtual environments of Internet mediated communities. Exchange of know-how that takes place among the customers of an organization's offering has the potential to create customer value and result in positive outcomes for organizations. This study proposes a model that examines key factors that drive C2C exchanges as well as the outcomes of these exchanges. The model shows how C2C exchanges create value for the marketing organization – that is, value over and above the value that the customer receives directly through exchanges with the organization. C2C exchanges are also proposed to enhance loyalty intentions. Viewing C2C know-how exchange as an information source to the customer, the model adapts and applies the motivation, opportunity, and ability (MOA) theory to explain levels of C2C know-how exchange.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)33-49
Number of pages17
JournalMarketing Theory
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2005
Externally publishedYes



  • ability
  • associations
  • brand communities-loyalty
  • customer-to-customer, C2C exchange
  • intentions
  • Internet
  • loyalty
  • members
  • MOA
  • motivation
  • opportunity
  • relationship marketing
  • value

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Marketing

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