High prevalence and two dominant host-specific genotypes of Coxiella burnetii in U.S. milk

Talima R Pearson, Heidie M. Hornstra, Remy Hilsabeck, Lauren T. Gates, Sonora M. Olivas, Dawn M. Birdsell, Carina M. Hall, Sabrina German, James M. Cook, Meagan L. Seymour, Rachael A. Priestley, Ashley V. Kondas, Christine L. Clark Friedman, Erin P. Price, James M. Schupp, Cindy M. Liu, Lance B. Price, Robert F. Massung, Gilbert J. Kersh, Paul S Keim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

37 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Coxiella burnetii causes Q fever in humans and Coxiellosis in animals; symptoms range from general malaise to fever, pneumonia, endocarditis and death. Livestock are a significant source of human infection as they shed C. burnetii cells in birth tissues, milk, urine and feces. Although prevalence of C. burnetii is high, few Q fever cases are reported in the U.S. and we have a limited understanding of their connectedness due to difficulties in genotyping. Here, we develop canonical SNP genotyping assays to evaluate spatial and temporal relationships among C. burnetii environmental samples and compare them across studies. Given the genotypic diversity of historical collections, we hypothesized that the current enzootic of Coxiellosis is caused by multiple circulating genotypes. We collected A) 23 milk samples from a single bovine herd, B) 134 commercial bovine and caprine milk samples from across the U.S., and C) 400 bovine and caprine samples from six milk processing plants over three years. Results: We detected C. burnetii DNA in 96% of samples with no variance over time. We genotyped 88.5% of positive samples; bovine milk contained only a single genotype (ST20) and caprine milk was dominated by a second type (mostly ST8). Conclusions: The high prevalence and lack of genotypic diversity is consistent with a model of rapid spread and persistence. The segregation of genotypes between host species is indicative of species-specific adaptations or dissemination barriers and may offer insights into the relative lack of human cases and characterizing genotypes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number41
JournalBMC Microbiology
Volume14
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 17 2014

Fingerprint

Coxiella burnetii
Milk
Genotype
Q Fever
Livestock
Endocarditis
Feces
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
Pneumonia
Fever
Urine
Parturition
DNA
Infection

Keywords

  • Canonical SNP
  • CanSNP
  • Coxiella burnetii
  • Environmental detection
  • Genotyping
  • Multispacer typing
  • Phylogeography
  • Q fever
  • SNP typing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Microbiology

Cite this

High prevalence and two dominant host-specific genotypes of Coxiella burnetii in U.S. milk. / Pearson, Talima R; Hornstra, Heidie M.; Hilsabeck, Remy; Gates, Lauren T.; Olivas, Sonora M.; Birdsell, Dawn M.; Hall, Carina M.; German, Sabrina; Cook, James M.; Seymour, Meagan L.; Priestley, Rachael A.; Kondas, Ashley V.; Clark Friedman, Christine L.; Price, Erin P.; Schupp, James M.; Liu, Cindy M.; Price, Lance B.; Massung, Robert F.; Kersh, Gilbert J.; Keim, Paul S.

In: BMC Microbiology, Vol. 14, No. 1, 41, 17.02.2014.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Pearson, TR, Hornstra, HM, Hilsabeck, R, Gates, LT, Olivas, SM, Birdsell, DM, Hall, CM, German, S, Cook, JM, Seymour, ML, Priestley, RA, Kondas, AV, Clark Friedman, CL, Price, EP, Schupp, JM, Liu, CM, Price, LB, Massung, RF, Kersh, GJ & Keim, PS 2014, 'High prevalence and two dominant host-specific genotypes of Coxiella burnetii in U.S. milk', BMC Microbiology, vol. 14, no. 1, 41. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2180-14-41
Pearson, Talima R ; Hornstra, Heidie M. ; Hilsabeck, Remy ; Gates, Lauren T. ; Olivas, Sonora M. ; Birdsell, Dawn M. ; Hall, Carina M. ; German, Sabrina ; Cook, James M. ; Seymour, Meagan L. ; Priestley, Rachael A. ; Kondas, Ashley V. ; Clark Friedman, Christine L. ; Price, Erin P. ; Schupp, James M. ; Liu, Cindy M. ; Price, Lance B. ; Massung, Robert F. ; Kersh, Gilbert J. ; Keim, Paul S. / High prevalence and two dominant host-specific genotypes of Coxiella burnetii in U.S. milk. In: BMC Microbiology. 2014 ; Vol. 14, No. 1.
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abstract = "Background: Coxiella burnetii causes Q fever in humans and Coxiellosis in animals; symptoms range from general malaise to fever, pneumonia, endocarditis and death. Livestock are a significant source of human infection as they shed C. burnetii cells in birth tissues, milk, urine and feces. Although prevalence of C. burnetii is high, few Q fever cases are reported in the U.S. and we have a limited understanding of their connectedness due to difficulties in genotyping. Here, we develop canonical SNP genotyping assays to evaluate spatial and temporal relationships among C. burnetii environmental samples and compare them across studies. Given the genotypic diversity of historical collections, we hypothesized that the current enzootic of Coxiellosis is caused by multiple circulating genotypes. We collected A) 23 milk samples from a single bovine herd, B) 134 commercial bovine and caprine milk samples from across the U.S., and C) 400 bovine and caprine samples from six milk processing plants over three years. Results: We detected C. burnetii DNA in 96{\%} of samples with no variance over time. We genotyped 88.5{\%} of positive samples; bovine milk contained only a single genotype (ST20) and caprine milk was dominated by a second type (mostly ST8). Conclusions: The high prevalence and lack of genotypic diversity is consistent with a model of rapid spread and persistence. The segregation of genotypes between host species is indicative of species-specific adaptations or dissemination barriers and may offer insights into the relative lack of human cases and characterizing genotypes.",
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AU - Pearson, Talima R

AU - Hornstra, Heidie M.

AU - Hilsabeck, Remy

AU - Gates, Lauren T.

AU - Olivas, Sonora M.

AU - Birdsell, Dawn M.

AU - Hall, Carina M.

AU - German, Sabrina

AU - Cook, James M.

AU - Seymour, Meagan L.

AU - Priestley, Rachael A.

AU - Kondas, Ashley V.

AU - Clark Friedman, Christine L.

AU - Price, Erin P.

AU - Schupp, James M.

AU - Liu, Cindy M.

AU - Price, Lance B.

AU - Massung, Robert F.

AU - Kersh, Gilbert J.

AU - Keim, Paul S

PY - 2014/2/17

Y1 - 2014/2/17

N2 - Background: Coxiella burnetii causes Q fever in humans and Coxiellosis in animals; symptoms range from general malaise to fever, pneumonia, endocarditis and death. Livestock are a significant source of human infection as they shed C. burnetii cells in birth tissues, milk, urine and feces. Although prevalence of C. burnetii is high, few Q fever cases are reported in the U.S. and we have a limited understanding of their connectedness due to difficulties in genotyping. Here, we develop canonical SNP genotyping assays to evaluate spatial and temporal relationships among C. burnetii environmental samples and compare them across studies. Given the genotypic diversity of historical collections, we hypothesized that the current enzootic of Coxiellosis is caused by multiple circulating genotypes. We collected A) 23 milk samples from a single bovine herd, B) 134 commercial bovine and caprine milk samples from across the U.S., and C) 400 bovine and caprine samples from six milk processing plants over three years. Results: We detected C. burnetii DNA in 96% of samples with no variance over time. We genotyped 88.5% of positive samples; bovine milk contained only a single genotype (ST20) and caprine milk was dominated by a second type (mostly ST8). Conclusions: The high prevalence and lack of genotypic diversity is consistent with a model of rapid spread and persistence. The segregation of genotypes between host species is indicative of species-specific adaptations or dissemination barriers and may offer insights into the relative lack of human cases and characterizing genotypes.

AB - Background: Coxiella burnetii causes Q fever in humans and Coxiellosis in animals; symptoms range from general malaise to fever, pneumonia, endocarditis and death. Livestock are a significant source of human infection as they shed C. burnetii cells in birth tissues, milk, urine and feces. Although prevalence of C. burnetii is high, few Q fever cases are reported in the U.S. and we have a limited understanding of their connectedness due to difficulties in genotyping. Here, we develop canonical SNP genotyping assays to evaluate spatial and temporal relationships among C. burnetii environmental samples and compare them across studies. Given the genotypic diversity of historical collections, we hypothesized that the current enzootic of Coxiellosis is caused by multiple circulating genotypes. We collected A) 23 milk samples from a single bovine herd, B) 134 commercial bovine and caprine milk samples from across the U.S., and C) 400 bovine and caprine samples from six milk processing plants over three years. Results: We detected C. burnetii DNA in 96% of samples with no variance over time. We genotyped 88.5% of positive samples; bovine milk contained only a single genotype (ST20) and caprine milk was dominated by a second type (mostly ST8). Conclusions: The high prevalence and lack of genotypic diversity is consistent with a model of rapid spread and persistence. The segregation of genotypes between host species is indicative of species-specific adaptations or dissemination barriers and may offer insights into the relative lack of human cases and characterizing genotypes.

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KW - SNP typing

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