Fluorescent Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates

Karen K. Hill, Lawrence O. Ticknor, Richard T. Okinaka, Michelle Asay, Heather Blair, Katherine A. Bliss, Mariam Laker, Paige E. Pardington, Amber P. Richardson, Melinda Tonks, Douglas J. Beecher, John D. Kemp, Anne Brit Kolstø, Amy C Lee Wong, Paul S Keim, Paul J. Jackson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

137 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

DNA from over 300 Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus anthracis isolates was analyzed by fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). B. thuringiensis and B. cereus isolates were from diverse sources and locations, including soil, clinical isolates and food products causing diarrheal and emetic outbreaks, and type strains from the American Type Culture Collection, and over 200 B. thuringiensis isolates representing 36 serovars or subspecies were from the U.S. Department of Agriculture collection. Twenty-four diverse B. anthracis isolates were also included. Phylogenetic analysis of AFLP data revealed extensive diversity within B. thuringiensis and B. cereus compared to the monomorphic nature of B. anthracis. All of the B. anthracis strains were more closely related to each other than to any other Bacillus isolate, while B. cereus and B. thuringiensis strains populated the entire tree. Ten distinct branches were defined, with many branches containing both B. cereus and B. thuringiensis isolates. A single branch contained all the B. anthracis isolates plus an unusual B. thuringiensis isolate that is pathogenic in mice. In contrast, B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (ATCC 33679) and other isolates used to prepare insecticides mapped distal to the B. anthracis isolates. The interspersion of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis isolates within the phylogenetic tree suggests that phenotypic traits used to distinguish between these two species do not reflect the genomic content of the different isolates and that horizontal gene transfer plays an important role in establishing the phenotype of each of these microbes. B. thuringiensis isolates of a particular subspecies tended to cluster together.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1068-1080
Number of pages13
JournalApplied and Environmental Microbiology
Volume70
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2004

Fingerprint

Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis
Bacillus anthracis
Bacillus thuringiensis
Bacillus cereus
subspecies
amplified fragment length polymorphism
polymorphism
phylogenetics
gene transfer
insecticide
phenotype
genomics
agriculture
DNA
soil
emetics
analysis
Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki
Emetics
Horizontal Gene Transfer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Biotechnology
  • Microbiology

Cite this

Fluorescent Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates. / Hill, Karen K.; Ticknor, Lawrence O.; Okinaka, Richard T.; Asay, Michelle; Blair, Heather; Bliss, Katherine A.; Laker, Mariam; Pardington, Paige E.; Richardson, Amber P.; Tonks, Melinda; Beecher, Douglas J.; Kemp, John D.; Kolstø, Anne Brit; Wong, Amy C Lee; Keim, Paul S; Jackson, Paul J.

In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 70, No. 2, 02.2004, p. 1068-1080.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hill, KK, Ticknor, LO, Okinaka, RT, Asay, M, Blair, H, Bliss, KA, Laker, M, Pardington, PE, Richardson, AP, Tonks, M, Beecher, DJ, Kemp, JD, Kolstø, AB, Wong, ACL, Keim, PS & Jackson, PJ 2004, 'Fluorescent Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates', Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 70, no. 2, pp. 1068-1080. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.70.2.1068-1080.2004
Hill, Karen K. ; Ticknor, Lawrence O. ; Okinaka, Richard T. ; Asay, Michelle ; Blair, Heather ; Bliss, Katherine A. ; Laker, Mariam ; Pardington, Paige E. ; Richardson, Amber P. ; Tonks, Melinda ; Beecher, Douglas J. ; Kemp, John D. ; Kolstø, Anne Brit ; Wong, Amy C Lee ; Keim, Paul S ; Jackson, Paul J. / Fluorescent Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates. In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2004 ; Vol. 70, No. 2. pp. 1068-1080.
@article{49a8cf6d0b454c26a433cdbc7ec61fec,
title = "Fluorescent Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates",
abstract = "DNA from over 300 Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus anthracis isolates was analyzed by fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). B. thuringiensis and B. cereus isolates were from diverse sources and locations, including soil, clinical isolates and food products causing diarrheal and emetic outbreaks, and type strains from the American Type Culture Collection, and over 200 B. thuringiensis isolates representing 36 serovars or subspecies were from the U.S. Department of Agriculture collection. Twenty-four diverse B. anthracis isolates were also included. Phylogenetic analysis of AFLP data revealed extensive diversity within B. thuringiensis and B. cereus compared to the monomorphic nature of B. anthracis. All of the B. anthracis strains were more closely related to each other than to any other Bacillus isolate, while B. cereus and B. thuringiensis strains populated the entire tree. Ten distinct branches were defined, with many branches containing both B. cereus and B. thuringiensis isolates. A single branch contained all the B. anthracis isolates plus an unusual B. thuringiensis isolate that is pathogenic in mice. In contrast, B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (ATCC 33679) and other isolates used to prepare insecticides mapped distal to the B. anthracis isolates. The interspersion of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis isolates within the phylogenetic tree suggests that phenotypic traits used to distinguish between these two species do not reflect the genomic content of the different isolates and that horizontal gene transfer plays an important role in establishing the phenotype of each of these microbes. B. thuringiensis isolates of a particular subspecies tended to cluster together.",
author = "Hill, {Karen K.} and Ticknor, {Lawrence O.} and Okinaka, {Richard T.} and Michelle Asay and Heather Blair and Bliss, {Katherine A.} and Mariam Laker and Pardington, {Paige E.} and Richardson, {Amber P.} and Melinda Tonks and Beecher, {Douglas J.} and Kemp, {John D.} and Kolst{\o}, {Anne Brit} and Wong, {Amy C Lee} and Keim, {Paul S} and Jackson, {Paul J.}",
year = "2004",
month = "2",
doi = "10.1128/AEM.70.2.1068-1080.2004",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "70",
pages = "1068--1080",
journal = "Applied and Environmental Microbiology",
issn = "0099-2240",
publisher = "American Society for Microbiology",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Fluorescent Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates

AU - Hill, Karen K.

AU - Ticknor, Lawrence O.

AU - Okinaka, Richard T.

AU - Asay, Michelle

AU - Blair, Heather

AU - Bliss, Katherine A.

AU - Laker, Mariam

AU - Pardington, Paige E.

AU - Richardson, Amber P.

AU - Tonks, Melinda

AU - Beecher, Douglas J.

AU - Kemp, John D.

AU - Kolstø, Anne Brit

AU - Wong, Amy C Lee

AU - Keim, Paul S

AU - Jackson, Paul J.

PY - 2004/2

Y1 - 2004/2

N2 - DNA from over 300 Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus anthracis isolates was analyzed by fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). B. thuringiensis and B. cereus isolates were from diverse sources and locations, including soil, clinical isolates and food products causing diarrheal and emetic outbreaks, and type strains from the American Type Culture Collection, and over 200 B. thuringiensis isolates representing 36 serovars or subspecies were from the U.S. Department of Agriculture collection. Twenty-four diverse B. anthracis isolates were also included. Phylogenetic analysis of AFLP data revealed extensive diversity within B. thuringiensis and B. cereus compared to the monomorphic nature of B. anthracis. All of the B. anthracis strains were more closely related to each other than to any other Bacillus isolate, while B. cereus and B. thuringiensis strains populated the entire tree. Ten distinct branches were defined, with many branches containing both B. cereus and B. thuringiensis isolates. A single branch contained all the B. anthracis isolates plus an unusual B. thuringiensis isolate that is pathogenic in mice. In contrast, B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (ATCC 33679) and other isolates used to prepare insecticides mapped distal to the B. anthracis isolates. The interspersion of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis isolates within the phylogenetic tree suggests that phenotypic traits used to distinguish between these two species do not reflect the genomic content of the different isolates and that horizontal gene transfer plays an important role in establishing the phenotype of each of these microbes. B. thuringiensis isolates of a particular subspecies tended to cluster together.

AB - DNA from over 300 Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus anthracis isolates was analyzed by fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). B. thuringiensis and B. cereus isolates were from diverse sources and locations, including soil, clinical isolates and food products causing diarrheal and emetic outbreaks, and type strains from the American Type Culture Collection, and over 200 B. thuringiensis isolates representing 36 serovars or subspecies were from the U.S. Department of Agriculture collection. Twenty-four diverse B. anthracis isolates were also included. Phylogenetic analysis of AFLP data revealed extensive diversity within B. thuringiensis and B. cereus compared to the monomorphic nature of B. anthracis. All of the B. anthracis strains were more closely related to each other than to any other Bacillus isolate, while B. cereus and B. thuringiensis strains populated the entire tree. Ten distinct branches were defined, with many branches containing both B. cereus and B. thuringiensis isolates. A single branch contained all the B. anthracis isolates plus an unusual B. thuringiensis isolate that is pathogenic in mice. In contrast, B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (ATCC 33679) and other isolates used to prepare insecticides mapped distal to the B. anthracis isolates. The interspersion of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis isolates within the phylogenetic tree suggests that phenotypic traits used to distinguish between these two species do not reflect the genomic content of the different isolates and that horizontal gene transfer plays an important role in establishing the phenotype of each of these microbes. B. thuringiensis isolates of a particular subspecies tended to cluster together.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=2342474457&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=2342474457&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1128/AEM.70.2.1068-1080.2004

DO - 10.1128/AEM.70.2.1068-1080.2004

M3 - Article

VL - 70

SP - 1068

EP - 1080

JO - Applied and Environmental Microbiology

JF - Applied and Environmental Microbiology

SN - 0099-2240

IS - 2

ER -