Emissions from various biodiesel sources compared to a range of diesel fuels in DPF equipped diesel engines

Aaron Williams, Jonathan Burton, Earl Christensen, Robert L. McCormick, John Tester

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to measure the impact of various sources of petroleum-based and bio-based diesel fuels on regulated emissions and fuel economy in diesel particulate filter (DPF) equipped diesel engines. Two model year 2008 diesel engines were tested with nine fuels including a certification ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), local ULSD, high aromatic ULSD, low aromatic ULSD, and twenty percent blends of biodiesel derived from algae, camelina, soy, tallow, and yellow grease. Regulated emissions were measured over the heavy duty diesel transient test cycle. Measurements were also made of DPF-out particle size distribution and total particle count from a 13-mode steady state test using a fast mobility particle sizer. Test engines were a 2008 Cummins ISB and a 2008 International Maxx Force 10, both equipped with actively regenerated DPFs. Fuel consumption was roughly 2% greater over the transient test cycle for the B20 blends versus certification ULSD in both engines, consistent with the slightly lower energy content of biodiesel. Unlike studies conducted on older model engines, these engines equipped with diesel oxidation catalysts and DPFs showed small or no measurable fuel effect on the tailpipe emissions of total hydrocarbons (THC), carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM). No differences in particle size distribution or total particle count were seen in a comparison of certification ULSD and B20 soy, with the exception of engine idling conditions where B20 produced a small reduction in the number of nucleation mode particles. In the Cummins engine, B20 prepared from algae, camelina, soy, and tallow resulted in an approximately 2.5% increase in nitrogen oxides (NOx) compared to the base fuel. The International engine demonstrated a higher degree of variability for NOx emissions, and fuel effects could not be resolved (p > 0.05). The group of petroleum diesel test fuels produced a range of NOx emissions very similar to that caused by blending of biodiesel. Test cycles where an active regeneration of the DPF occurred resulted in a nearly threefold increase in NOx emissions and a 15% increase in fuel consumption. The full quantification of DPF regeneration events further complicates the accurate calculation of fuel impacts on emissions and fuel consumption.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationAmerican Society of Mechanical Engineers, Internal Combustion Engine Division (Publication) ICE
Pages223-241
Number of pages19
DOIs
StatePublished - 2011
EventASME 2011 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference, ICEF 2011 - Morgantown, WV, United States
Duration: Oct 2 2011Oct 5 2011

Other

OtherASME 2011 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference, ICEF 2011
CountryUnited States
CityMorgantown, WV
Period10/2/1110/5/11

Fingerprint

Diesel fuels
Biodiesel
Diesel engines
Engines
Sulfur
Nitrogen oxides
Fuel consumption
Algae
Particle size analysis
Particles (particulate matter)
Crude oil
Lubricating greases
Fuel economy
Carbon monoxide
Nucleation
Hydrocarbons
Oxidation
Catalysts

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Automotive Engineering

Cite this

Williams, A., Burton, J., Christensen, E., McCormick, R. L., & Tester, J. (2011). Emissions from various biodiesel sources compared to a range of diesel fuels in DPF equipped diesel engines. In American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Internal Combustion Engine Division (Publication) ICE (pp. 223-241) https://doi.org/10.1115/ICEF2011-60106

Emissions from various biodiesel sources compared to a range of diesel fuels in DPF equipped diesel engines. / Williams, Aaron; Burton, Jonathan; Christensen, Earl; McCormick, Robert L.; Tester, John.

American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Internal Combustion Engine Division (Publication) ICE. 2011. p. 223-241.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Williams, A, Burton, J, Christensen, E, McCormick, RL & Tester, J 2011, Emissions from various biodiesel sources compared to a range of diesel fuels in DPF equipped diesel engines. in American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Internal Combustion Engine Division (Publication) ICE. pp. 223-241, ASME 2011 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference, ICEF 2011, Morgantown, WV, United States, 10/2/11. https://doi.org/10.1115/ICEF2011-60106
Williams A, Burton J, Christensen E, McCormick RL, Tester J. Emissions from various biodiesel sources compared to a range of diesel fuels in DPF equipped diesel engines. In American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Internal Combustion Engine Division (Publication) ICE. 2011. p. 223-241 https://doi.org/10.1115/ICEF2011-60106
Williams, Aaron ; Burton, Jonathan ; Christensen, Earl ; McCormick, Robert L. ; Tester, John. / Emissions from various biodiesel sources compared to a range of diesel fuels in DPF equipped diesel engines. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Internal Combustion Engine Division (Publication) ICE. 2011. pp. 223-241
@inproceedings{ffbad2625ebf45f18520e5c9dd6908f8,
title = "Emissions from various biodiesel sources compared to a range of diesel fuels in DPF equipped diesel engines",
abstract = "The purpose of this study was to measure the impact of various sources of petroleum-based and bio-based diesel fuels on regulated emissions and fuel economy in diesel particulate filter (DPF) equipped diesel engines. Two model year 2008 diesel engines were tested with nine fuels including a certification ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), local ULSD, high aromatic ULSD, low aromatic ULSD, and twenty percent blends of biodiesel derived from algae, camelina, soy, tallow, and yellow grease. Regulated emissions were measured over the heavy duty diesel transient test cycle. Measurements were also made of DPF-out particle size distribution and total particle count from a 13-mode steady state test using a fast mobility particle sizer. Test engines were a 2008 Cummins ISB and a 2008 International Maxx Force 10, both equipped with actively regenerated DPFs. Fuel consumption was roughly 2{\%} greater over the transient test cycle for the B20 blends versus certification ULSD in both engines, consistent with the slightly lower energy content of biodiesel. Unlike studies conducted on older model engines, these engines equipped with diesel oxidation catalysts and DPFs showed small or no measurable fuel effect on the tailpipe emissions of total hydrocarbons (THC), carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM). No differences in particle size distribution or total particle count were seen in a comparison of certification ULSD and B20 soy, with the exception of engine idling conditions where B20 produced a small reduction in the number of nucleation mode particles. In the Cummins engine, B20 prepared from algae, camelina, soy, and tallow resulted in an approximately 2.5{\%} increase in nitrogen oxides (NOx) compared to the base fuel. The International engine demonstrated a higher degree of variability for NOx emissions, and fuel effects could not be resolved (p > 0.05). The group of petroleum diesel test fuels produced a range of NOx emissions very similar to that caused by blending of biodiesel. Test cycles where an active regeneration of the DPF occurred resulted in a nearly threefold increase in NOx emissions and a 15{\%} increase in fuel consumption. The full quantification of DPF regeneration events further complicates the accurate calculation of fuel impacts on emissions and fuel consumption.",
author = "Aaron Williams and Jonathan Burton and Earl Christensen and McCormick, {Robert L.} and John Tester",
year = "2011",
doi = "10.1115/ICEF2011-60106",
language = "English (US)",
isbn = "9780791844427",
pages = "223--241",
booktitle = "American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Internal Combustion Engine Division (Publication) ICE",

}

TY - GEN

T1 - Emissions from various biodiesel sources compared to a range of diesel fuels in DPF equipped diesel engines

AU - Williams, Aaron

AU - Burton, Jonathan

AU - Christensen, Earl

AU - McCormick, Robert L.

AU - Tester, John

PY - 2011

Y1 - 2011

N2 - The purpose of this study was to measure the impact of various sources of petroleum-based and bio-based diesel fuels on regulated emissions and fuel economy in diesel particulate filter (DPF) equipped diesel engines. Two model year 2008 diesel engines were tested with nine fuels including a certification ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), local ULSD, high aromatic ULSD, low aromatic ULSD, and twenty percent blends of biodiesel derived from algae, camelina, soy, tallow, and yellow grease. Regulated emissions were measured over the heavy duty diesel transient test cycle. Measurements were also made of DPF-out particle size distribution and total particle count from a 13-mode steady state test using a fast mobility particle sizer. Test engines were a 2008 Cummins ISB and a 2008 International Maxx Force 10, both equipped with actively regenerated DPFs. Fuel consumption was roughly 2% greater over the transient test cycle for the B20 blends versus certification ULSD in both engines, consistent with the slightly lower energy content of biodiesel. Unlike studies conducted on older model engines, these engines equipped with diesel oxidation catalysts and DPFs showed small or no measurable fuel effect on the tailpipe emissions of total hydrocarbons (THC), carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM). No differences in particle size distribution or total particle count were seen in a comparison of certification ULSD and B20 soy, with the exception of engine idling conditions where B20 produced a small reduction in the number of nucleation mode particles. In the Cummins engine, B20 prepared from algae, camelina, soy, and tallow resulted in an approximately 2.5% increase in nitrogen oxides (NOx) compared to the base fuel. The International engine demonstrated a higher degree of variability for NOx emissions, and fuel effects could not be resolved (p > 0.05). The group of petroleum diesel test fuels produced a range of NOx emissions very similar to that caused by blending of biodiesel. Test cycles where an active regeneration of the DPF occurred resulted in a nearly threefold increase in NOx emissions and a 15% increase in fuel consumption. The full quantification of DPF regeneration events further complicates the accurate calculation of fuel impacts on emissions and fuel consumption.

AB - The purpose of this study was to measure the impact of various sources of petroleum-based and bio-based diesel fuels on regulated emissions and fuel economy in diesel particulate filter (DPF) equipped diesel engines. Two model year 2008 diesel engines were tested with nine fuels including a certification ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), local ULSD, high aromatic ULSD, low aromatic ULSD, and twenty percent blends of biodiesel derived from algae, camelina, soy, tallow, and yellow grease. Regulated emissions were measured over the heavy duty diesel transient test cycle. Measurements were also made of DPF-out particle size distribution and total particle count from a 13-mode steady state test using a fast mobility particle sizer. Test engines were a 2008 Cummins ISB and a 2008 International Maxx Force 10, both equipped with actively regenerated DPFs. Fuel consumption was roughly 2% greater over the transient test cycle for the B20 blends versus certification ULSD in both engines, consistent with the slightly lower energy content of biodiesel. Unlike studies conducted on older model engines, these engines equipped with diesel oxidation catalysts and DPFs showed small or no measurable fuel effect on the tailpipe emissions of total hydrocarbons (THC), carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM). No differences in particle size distribution or total particle count were seen in a comparison of certification ULSD and B20 soy, with the exception of engine idling conditions where B20 produced a small reduction in the number of nucleation mode particles. In the Cummins engine, B20 prepared from algae, camelina, soy, and tallow resulted in an approximately 2.5% increase in nitrogen oxides (NOx) compared to the base fuel. The International engine demonstrated a higher degree of variability for NOx emissions, and fuel effects could not be resolved (p > 0.05). The group of petroleum diesel test fuels produced a range of NOx emissions very similar to that caused by blending of biodiesel. Test cycles where an active regeneration of the DPF occurred resulted in a nearly threefold increase in NOx emissions and a 15% increase in fuel consumption. The full quantification of DPF regeneration events further complicates the accurate calculation of fuel impacts on emissions and fuel consumption.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84862578787&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84862578787&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1115/ICEF2011-60106

DO - 10.1115/ICEF2011-60106

M3 - Conference contribution

AN - SCOPUS:84862578787

SN - 9780791844427

SP - 223

EP - 241

BT - American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Internal Combustion Engine Division (Publication) ICE

ER -