Does generalized anxiety disorder predict coronary heart disease risk factors independently of major depressive disorder?

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Abstract

Background: Anxiety symptoms are associated with elevated coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, but it is not known whether such associations extend to anxiety disorders or if they are independent of depression. We sought to determine if generalized anxiety disorder is associated with elevated CHD risk, and whether this association is independent of or interacts with major depressive disorder. Methods: Generalized anxiety and major depressive disorders were assessed in a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of U.S. adults aged 25-74 (N = 3032). Coronary heart disease risk was determined by self-reported smoking status, body mass index, and recent medication use for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes. Results: Generalized anxiety disorder independently predicted increased CHD risk (F(1,3018) = 5.14; b = 0.39; 95% confidence interval (0.05-0.72)) and tended to denote the greatest risk in the absence of major depressive disorder. Limitations: The cross-sectional design cannot determine the causal direction of the association. Conclusions: Generalized anxiety disorder appears to be associated with elevated CHD risk in the general population. It may denote excess CHD risk relative to major depressive disorder, and clinicians should consider CHD risk when treating generalized anxiety disorder.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)87-91
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Affective Disorders
Volume88
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2005

Fingerprint

Major Depressive Disorder
Anxiety Disorders
Coronary Disease
Anxiety
Hypercholesterolemia
Body Mass Index
Cross-Sectional Studies
Smoking
Confidence Intervals
Depression
Hypertension
Population

Keywords

  • Blood pressure
  • Coronary heart disease
  • Generalized anxiety disorder
  • Major depressive disorder
  • Smoking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Behavioral Neuroscience
  • Biological Psychiatry
  • Neurology
  • Psychology(all)

Cite this

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title = "Does generalized anxiety disorder predict coronary heart disease risk factors independently of major depressive disorder?",
abstract = "Background: Anxiety symptoms are associated with elevated coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, but it is not known whether such associations extend to anxiety disorders or if they are independent of depression. We sought to determine if generalized anxiety disorder is associated with elevated CHD risk, and whether this association is independent of or interacts with major depressive disorder. Methods: Generalized anxiety and major depressive disorders were assessed in a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of U.S. adults aged 25-74 (N = 3032). Coronary heart disease risk was determined by self-reported smoking status, body mass index, and recent medication use for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes. Results: Generalized anxiety disorder independently predicted increased CHD risk (F(1,3018) = 5.14; b = 0.39; 95{\%} confidence interval (0.05-0.72)) and tended to denote the greatest risk in the absence of major depressive disorder. Limitations: The cross-sectional design cannot determine the causal direction of the association. Conclusions: Generalized anxiety disorder appears to be associated with elevated CHD risk in the general population. It may denote excess CHD risk relative to major depressive disorder, and clinicians should consider CHD risk when treating generalized anxiety disorder.",
keywords = "Blood pressure, Coronary heart disease, Generalized anxiety disorder, Major depressive disorder, Smoking",
author = "Barger, {Steven D} and Sydeman, {Sumner J}",
year = "2005",
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language = "English (US)",
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T1 - Does generalized anxiety disorder predict coronary heart disease risk factors independently of major depressive disorder?

AU - Barger, Steven D

AU - Sydeman, Sumner J

PY - 2005/9

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N2 - Background: Anxiety symptoms are associated with elevated coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, but it is not known whether such associations extend to anxiety disorders or if they are independent of depression. We sought to determine if generalized anxiety disorder is associated with elevated CHD risk, and whether this association is independent of or interacts with major depressive disorder. Methods: Generalized anxiety and major depressive disorders were assessed in a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of U.S. adults aged 25-74 (N = 3032). Coronary heart disease risk was determined by self-reported smoking status, body mass index, and recent medication use for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes. Results: Generalized anxiety disorder independently predicted increased CHD risk (F(1,3018) = 5.14; b = 0.39; 95% confidence interval (0.05-0.72)) and tended to denote the greatest risk in the absence of major depressive disorder. Limitations: The cross-sectional design cannot determine the causal direction of the association. Conclusions: Generalized anxiety disorder appears to be associated with elevated CHD risk in the general population. It may denote excess CHD risk relative to major depressive disorder, and clinicians should consider CHD risk when treating generalized anxiety disorder.

AB - Background: Anxiety symptoms are associated with elevated coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, but it is not known whether such associations extend to anxiety disorders or if they are independent of depression. We sought to determine if generalized anxiety disorder is associated with elevated CHD risk, and whether this association is independent of or interacts with major depressive disorder. Methods: Generalized anxiety and major depressive disorders were assessed in a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of U.S. adults aged 25-74 (N = 3032). Coronary heart disease risk was determined by self-reported smoking status, body mass index, and recent medication use for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes. Results: Generalized anxiety disorder independently predicted increased CHD risk (F(1,3018) = 5.14; b = 0.39; 95% confidence interval (0.05-0.72)) and tended to denote the greatest risk in the absence of major depressive disorder. Limitations: The cross-sectional design cannot determine the causal direction of the association. Conclusions: Generalized anxiety disorder appears to be associated with elevated CHD risk in the general population. It may denote excess CHD risk relative to major depressive disorder, and clinicians should consider CHD risk when treating generalized anxiety disorder.

KW - Blood pressure

KW - Coronary heart disease

KW - Generalized anxiety disorder

KW - Major depressive disorder

KW - Smoking

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