Differences in student outcomes by types of living-learning programs: The development of an empirical typology

Karen Kurotsuchi Inkelas, Matthew Soldner, Susan Longerbeam, Jeannie Brown Leonard

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Scopus citations


This study involved the development of the first empirical typology of living-learning programs and its use in the assessment of students' learning outcomes. Using two-step cluster analysis with data from nearly 300 living-learning programs at 34 U.S. postsecondary institutions, the authors identified three structural types of programs: (a) small, limited resourced, primarily residential life programs; (b) medium, moderately resourced, student affairs/academic affairs combination programs; and (c) large, comprehensively resourced, student affairs/academic affairs collaboration programs. Multiple regression analyses revealed that students in the large academic affairs/student affairs collaborations and small residential life-based living-learning program types exhibited stronger self-reported learning outcomes than those in the medium combination programs. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)495-512
Number of pages18
JournalResearch in Higher Education
Issue number6
StatePublished - Sep 2008



  • Living-learning programs
  • Student learning outcomes
  • Typology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education

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