Breaching of strike-slip faults and successive flooding of pull-apart basins to form the Gulf of California seaway from ca. 8-6 Ma

Paul J Umhoefer, Michael H. Darin, Scott E.K. Bennett, Lisa A. Skinner, Rebecca J. Dorsey, Michael E. Oskin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The geologic record of the formation of marine basins during continental rifting is uncommonly preserved. Using GIS-based paleotectonic maps, we show that marine basin formation in the Gulf of California-Salton trough oblique rift (Mexico and the United States) occurred in a stepwise manner as crustal thinning lowered elevations within the Gulf of California Shear Zone, and subsidence along strike-slip and transtensional faults linked isolated pull-apart basins. At 8 Ma, the earliest marine conditions in the Gulf of California were restricted to an embayment at its southern mouth. Farther north, the plate boundary was a set of continental strike-slip faults and linked pull-apart basins, similar to the modern Walker Lane in Nevada and California. By ca. 7 Ma, a series of marine incursions breached across strike-slip faults to the Pescadero and Farallon basins. Marine waters then breached a 75-100 km-long transtensional fault zone between the Farallon and Guaymas basins, with intermittent flooding that led to accumulation of extensive evaporite deposits in the Guaymas basin. Marine incursion north of the Guaymas basin via breaches across the Guaymas and Tiburón strike-slip faults and transtensional zones resulted in flooding of the northern > 500 km of the oblique rift by 6.5-6.3 Ma. Thus, strike-slip and transtensional faulting promoted localization of plate boundary strain and guided punctuated marine flooding of the Gulf of California seaway. Inception of the narrow, 1500-km-long Gulf of California at ca. 6.3 Ma was followed by complete continental rupture in the Guaymas basin at ca. 6.0 Ma.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)695-698
Number of pages4
JournalGeology
Volume46
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2018

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pull apart basin
strike-slip fault
flooding
basin
plate boundary
crustal thinning
basin evolution
evaporite
rifting
shear zone
gulf
rupture
fault zone
faulting
trough
subsidence
GIS

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Breaching of strike-slip faults and successive flooding of pull-apart basins to form the Gulf of California seaway from ca. 8-6 Ma. / Umhoefer, Paul J; Darin, Michael H.; Bennett, Scott E.K.; Skinner, Lisa A.; Dorsey, Rebecca J.; Oskin, Michael E.

In: Geology, Vol. 46, No. 8, 01.08.2018, p. 695-698.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Umhoefer, Paul J ; Darin, Michael H. ; Bennett, Scott E.K. ; Skinner, Lisa A. ; Dorsey, Rebecca J. ; Oskin, Michael E. / Breaching of strike-slip faults and successive flooding of pull-apart basins to form the Gulf of California seaway from ca. 8-6 Ma. In: Geology. 2018 ; Vol. 46, No. 8. pp. 695-698.
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abstract = "The geologic record of the formation of marine basins during continental rifting is uncommonly preserved. Using GIS-based paleotectonic maps, we show that marine basin formation in the Gulf of California-Salton trough oblique rift (Mexico and the United States) occurred in a stepwise manner as crustal thinning lowered elevations within the Gulf of California Shear Zone, and subsidence along strike-slip and transtensional faults linked isolated pull-apart basins. At 8 Ma, the earliest marine conditions in the Gulf of California were restricted to an embayment at its southern mouth. Farther north, the plate boundary was a set of continental strike-slip faults and linked pull-apart basins, similar to the modern Walker Lane in Nevada and California. By ca. 7 Ma, a series of marine incursions breached across strike-slip faults to the Pescadero and Farallon basins. Marine waters then breached a 75-100 km-long transtensional fault zone between the Farallon and Guaymas basins, with intermittent flooding that led to accumulation of extensive evaporite deposits in the Guaymas basin. Marine incursion north of the Guaymas basin via breaches across the Guaymas and Tibur{\'o}n strike-slip faults and transtensional zones resulted in flooding of the northern > 500 km of the oblique rift by 6.5-6.3 Ma. Thus, strike-slip and transtensional faulting promoted localization of plate boundary strain and guided punctuated marine flooding of the Gulf of California seaway. Inception of the narrow, 1500-km-long Gulf of California at ca. 6.3 Ma was followed by complete continental rupture in the Guaymas basin at ca. 6.0 Ma.",
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