We experimentally investigated the effect of authorized crib cards on undergraduates' multiple-choice exam performance for lower order and higher order questions and on anxiety levels in an upper division child and adolescent development course. Students (N = 54) in 2 sections could use crib cards during 2 of the 4 exams. Despite student expectations that crib cards would greatly improve performance and reduce anxiety, their use did not improve performance for either the higher order or lower order exam questions, nor did they reduce student anxiety. The failure of authorized crib cards to improve exam performance even for factual material suggests that instructors ought to weigh seriously the decision to allow such cards on exams.
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