We describe capacitance instrumentation suitable for the measurement of density and velocity of flowing snow with moderate liquid-phase water content. A wand, consisting of two adjacent sensors protected by guard circuits, produces signals that are related to snow density through calibration. Cross-correlation of the signals permits velocity measurements. Calibration is accomplished using a capacitance device that records the dielectric properties of a snow sample while subjecting it to controlled levels of compaction and volume change. Non-invasive probe geometries are also presented. The instrumentation is tested in artificial and natural avalanches.
- Dielectric properties
- Electrical methods
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
- Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)