A review of methods for subtyping Yersinia pestis: From phenotypes to whole genome sequencing

Amy J. Vogler, Paul S Keim, David M Wagner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Scopus citations


Numerous subtyping methods have been applied to Yersinia pestis with varying success. Here, we review the various subtyping methods that have been applied to Y. pestis and their capacity for answering questions regarding the population genetics, phylogeography, and molecular epidemiology of this important human pathogen. Methods are evaluated in terms of expense, difficulty, transferability among laboratories, discriminatory power, usefulness for different study questions, and current applicability in light of the advent of whole genome sequencing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)21-36
Number of pages16
JournalInfection, Genetics and Evolution
StatePublished - Jan 1 2016



  • DFR
  • Genotyping
  • IS element
  • LCB linking modes
  • MLVA
  • RFLP
  • SNP
  • Subtyping
  • VNTR
  • Yersinia pestis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Genetics
  • Molecular Biology
  • Microbiology
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Microbiology (medical)

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