A global synthesis reveals biodiversity loss as a major driver of ecosystem change

David U. Hooper, E. Carol Adair, Bradley J. Cardinale, Jarrett E K Byrnes, Bruce A Hungate, Kristin L. Matulich, Andrew Gonzalez, J. Emmett Duffy, Lars Gamfeldt, Mary I. Connor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

906 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Evidence is mounting that extinctions are altering key processes important to the productivity and sustainability of Earth's ecosystems1-4. Further species loss will accelerate change in ecosystem processes 5-8, but it is unclear how these effects compare to the direct effects of other forms of environmental change that are both driving diversity loss and altering ecosystem function. Here we use a suite of meta-analyses of published data to show that the effects of species loss on productivity and decomposition-two processes important in all ecosystems-are of comparable magnitude to the effects of many other global environmental changes. In experiments, intermediate levels of species loss (21-40%) reduced plant production by 5-10%, comparable to previously documented effects of ultraviolet radiation and climate warming. Higher levels of extinction (41-60%) had effects rivalling those of ozone, acidification, elevated CO2 and nutrient pollution. At intermediate levels, species loss generally had equal or greater effects on decomposition than did elevated CO2 and nitrogen addition. The identity of species lost also had a large effect on changes in productivity and decomposition, generating a wide range of plausible outcomes for extinction. Despite the need for more studies on interactive effects of diversity loss and environmental changes, our analyses clearly show that the ecosystem consequences of local species loss are as quantitatively significant as the direct effects of several global change stressors that have mobilized major international concern and remediation efforts9.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)105-108
Number of pages4
JournalNature
Volume486
Issue number7401
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 7 2012

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Biodiversity
Ecosystem
Ozone
Radiation Effects
Climate
Meta-Analysis
Nitrogen
Food

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

Hooper, D. U., Adair, E. C., Cardinale, B. J., Byrnes, J. E. K., Hungate, B. A., Matulich, K. L., ... Connor, M. I. (2012). A global synthesis reveals biodiversity loss as a major driver of ecosystem change. Nature, 486(7401), 105-108. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature11118

A global synthesis reveals biodiversity loss as a major driver of ecosystem change. / Hooper, David U.; Adair, E. Carol; Cardinale, Bradley J.; Byrnes, Jarrett E K; Hungate, Bruce A; Matulich, Kristin L.; Gonzalez, Andrew; Duffy, J. Emmett; Gamfeldt, Lars; Connor, Mary I.

In: Nature, Vol. 486, No. 7401, 07.06.2012, p. 105-108.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hooper, DU, Adair, EC, Cardinale, BJ, Byrnes, JEK, Hungate, BA, Matulich, KL, Gonzalez, A, Duffy, JE, Gamfeldt, L & Connor, MI 2012, 'A global synthesis reveals biodiversity loss as a major driver of ecosystem change', Nature, vol. 486, no. 7401, pp. 105-108. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature11118
Hooper DU, Adair EC, Cardinale BJ, Byrnes JEK, Hungate BA, Matulich KL et al. A global synthesis reveals biodiversity loss as a major driver of ecosystem change. Nature. 2012 Jun 7;486(7401):105-108. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature11118
Hooper, David U. ; Adair, E. Carol ; Cardinale, Bradley J. ; Byrnes, Jarrett E K ; Hungate, Bruce A ; Matulich, Kristin L. ; Gonzalez, Andrew ; Duffy, J. Emmett ; Gamfeldt, Lars ; Connor, Mary I. / A global synthesis reveals biodiversity loss as a major driver of ecosystem change. In: Nature. 2012 ; Vol. 486, No. 7401. pp. 105-108.
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