PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The Campanulaceae are a diverse clade of flowering plants encompassing more than 2300 species in myriad habitats from tropical rainforests to arctic tundra. A robust, multigene phylogeny, including all major lineages, is presented to provide a broad, evolutionary perspective of this cosmopolitan clade. METHODS: We used a phylogenetic framework, in combination with divergence dating, ancestral range estimation, chromosome modeling, and morphological character reconstruction analyses to infer phylogenetic placement and timing of major biogeographic, genomic, and morphological changes in the history of the group and provide insights into the diversification of this clade across six continents. KEY RESULTS: Ancestral range estimation supports an out-of-Africa diversification following the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event. Chromosomal modeling, with corroboration from the distribution of synonymous substitutions among gene duplicates, provides evidence for as many as 20 genome-wide duplication events before large radiations. Morphological reconstructions support the hypothesis that switches in floral symmetry and anther dehiscence were important in the evolution of secondary pollen presentation mechanisms. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a broad, phylogenetic perspective on the evolution of the Campanulaceae clade. The remarkable habitat diversity and cosmopolitan distribution of this lineage appears to be the result of a complex history of genome duplications and numerous long-distance dispersal events. We failed to find evidence for an ancestral polyploidy event for this clade, and our analyses indicate an ancestral base number of nine for the group. This study will serve as a framework for future studies in diverse areas of research in Campanulaceae.
- Ancestral state estimation
- Secondary pollen presentation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
- Plant Science