A framework to evaluate ecological and social outcomes of collaborative management: Lessons from implementation with a Northern Arizona collaborative group

Tischa A. Muñoz-Erickson, Bernardo Aguilar-González, Matthew R R Loeser, Thomas D Sisk

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

24 Scopus citations


As collaborative groups gain popularity as an alternative means for addressing conflict over management of public lands, the need for methods to evaluate their effectiveness in achieving ecological and social goals increases. However, frameworks that examine both effectiveness of the collaborative process and its outcomes are poorly developed or altogether lacking. This paper presents and evaluates the utility of the holistic ecosystem health indicator (HEHI), a framework that integrates multiple ecological and socioeconomic criteria to evaluate management effectiveness of collaborative processes. Through the development and application of the HEHI to a collaborative in northern Arizona, the Diablo Trust, we present the opportunities and challenges in using this framework to evaluate the ecological and social outcomes of collaborative adaptive management. Baseline results from the first application of the HEHI are presented as an illustration of its potential as a co-adaptive management tool. We discuss lessons learned from the process of selecting indicators and potential issues to their long-term implementation. Finally, we provide recommendations for applying this framework to monitoring and adaptive management in the context of collaborative management.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)132-144
Number of pages13
JournalEnvironmental Management
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2010



  • Adaptive co-management
  • Collaborative management
  • Ecosystem health
  • Multi-party monitoring
  • Northern Arizona
  • Outcome evaluation
  • Sustainability indicators

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology
  • Global and Planetary Change
  • Pollution

Cite this